The Ventral Ascending Noradrenergic Bundles Are Involved in the Stress Response to Immobilization in Rats


Stressful stimuli induced by immobilization are perceived as acute stress in rats. This acute stress activates corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), resulting in stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The ventral ascending noradrenergic bundles (V-NAB) from the brainstem innervate the PVN. To investigate the relationship between the response of the HPA axis and the V-NAB, we examined changes in plasma corticosterone, the final output of the HPA axis, and extracellular noradrenaline (NA) in the PVN following immobilization stress in rats that received bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the V-NAB. 6-OHDA microinjection into the V-NAB reduced the magnitude of the responses of plasma corticosterone and extracellular NA in the PVN following immobilization stress. Our results suggest that V-NAB innervation of the PVN is involved in immobilization stress-induced activation of the HPA axis.

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Yoshihara, T. and Yawaka, Y. (2015) The Ventral Ascending Noradrenergic Bundles Are Involved in the Stress Response to Immobilization in Rats. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 5, 88-95. doi: 10.4236/jbbs.2015.53008.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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