Effective Factors in Urinary Tract Infection Prevention among Children: Application of Health Belief Model

DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.52008   PDF   HTML   XML   3,015 Downloads   3,959 Views   Citations


Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections among children using preventive manipulations, especially among children less than 6 years old. This study aimed at exploring factors which could affect urinary tract infection prevention among children. A descriptive analytical study was conducted on 70 mothers who had children less than 6 years old in 2013. Multistage cluster sampling method was utilized in which each kindergarten was considered as a cluster and data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire designed based on Health Belief Model (HBM). Validity and reliability of questionnaire were confirmed by a pilot study. ANOVA and Pearson Correlation Coefficient were conducted using SPSS, version 18. The mean and standard deviation of knowledge and practice were 6.96 ± 2.14 and 15.47 ± 1.54 respectively. Means and standard deviation of Health Belief Model constructs (perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers and self-efficacy) were 17.64 ± 2.50, 22.02 ± 2.55, 20.90 ± 2.38, 27.56 ± 5.20 and 21.49 ± 3.18 respectively. More participants were in the moderate levels of knowledge (74.3%) and practice (45.7%). These findings revealed a significant relation between practice and perceived susceptibility (p = 0.02), perceived barriers (p = 0.001), self-efficacy (p = 0.014) and cues to action (p = 0.016). Based on the current study, the intervention based on Health Belief Model can be useful to improve preventive behaviors of Urinary Tract Infection.

Share and Cite:

Hashemiparast, M. , Shojaeizadeh, D. , Aezam, K. and Tol, A. (2015) Effective Factors in Urinary Tract Infection Prevention among Children: Application of Health Belief Model. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 5, 72-77. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.52008.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Oh, M., Cheon, J., Kang, S., et al. (2010) Predictive Factors for Acute Renal Cortical Scintigraphic Lesion and Ultimate Scar Formation in Children with First Febrile Urinary Tract Infection. The Journal of Urology, 183, 1146-1150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2009.11.051
[2] Chen, J.J., Mao, W., Homayoonandgeorge, K. and Steinhardt, F. (2004) A Multivariate Analysis of Dysfunctional Elimination Syndrome, and Its Relationships with Gender, Urinary Tract Infection and Vesicoureteral Reflux in Children. The Journal of Urology, 171, 1907-1910.
[3] Craig, J., Simpson, J., Williams, G., et al. (2009) Antibiotic Prophylaxis and Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection in Children. The New England Journal of Medicine, 361, 1748-1759.
[4] Tanagho, E.A. and McAninch, J.W. (2008) Smith’s General Urology. McGraw-Hill Medical, New York.
[5] Montini, G., Tullus, K. and Hewitt, L. (2011) Febrile Urinary Tract Infections in Children. The New England Journal of Medicine, 365, 239-250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1007755
[6] Harmsen, M., Adang, E., Wolters, R., et al. (2009) Management of Childhood Urinary Tract Infections: An Economic Modeling Study. Value in Health, 12, 466-472.
[7] Bremberg, S.G. and Edström, S. (2001) Outcome Assessment of Routine Medical Practice in Handling Child Urinary tract Infections: Estimation of Renal Scar Incidence. Ambulatory Child Health, 7, 149-155.
[8] Paschke, A.A., Zaoutis, T., Conway, P., et al. (2010) Previous Antimicrobial Exposure Is Associated with Drug-Resistant Urinary Tract Infections in Children. Pediatrics, 125, 664-672.
[9] Butler, C.C., Dunstan, F., Heginbothom, M., et al. (2007) Containing Antibiotic Resistance: Decreased Antibiotic-Resistant Coliform Urinary Tract Infections with Reduction in Antibiotic Prescribing by General Practices. British Journal of General Practice, 57, 785-792.
[10] Ghanesherbaf, F., Kharazme, A., Gharaeigomei, R., et al. (2011) Related Factors with Permanent Scar in Children with Urinary Tract Infections. Journal of North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, 3, 57-67.
[11] Harmsen, M., Wensing, M., Wouden, J. and Grol, R. (2007) Parents’ Awareness of and Knowledge about Young Children’s Urinary Tract Infections. Patient Education and Counseling, 66, 250-255.
[12] Owen, D., Vidal-Alaball, J., Mansour, M., Bordeaux, K., Jones, K.V. and Edwards, A. (2003) Parent’s Opinions on the Diagnosis of Children under 2 Years of Age with Urinary Tract Infection. Family Practice, 20, 531-537.
[13] Hazavehei, S.M., Sharifirad, G. and Mohabi, S. (2007) The Effect of Educational Program Based on Health Belief Model on Diabetic Foot Care. International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries, 27, 18. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-3930.34753
[14] Patrick, H. and Williams, G.C. (2012) Self-Determination Theory: Its Application to Health Behavior and Complementarity with Motivational Interviewing. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9, 18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-9-18
[15] Jones, P.K., Jones, S.L. and Katz, J. (1990) A Randomized Trial to Improve Compliance in Urinary Tract Infection Patients in the Emergency Department. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 19, 16-20.
[16] Glanz, K., Rimer, B. and Viswanath, K. (2008) Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken.
[17] Cronbach, L.J. (1951) Coefficient Alpha and the Internal Structure of Tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297-334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02310555
[18] Baghiani, M.M., Shojaezade, D., Mohamadlo, A., Fallahzadeh, H. and Ranjbary, M. (2013) Evaluation of Preventive Behaviors of UTI Based on Health Belief Model in Mothers with Girls Younger than 6 Years Old. Journal of Toloo-E-Behdasht, 12, 78-88.
[19] Saffari, M. and Shojaezade, D. (2009) Health Education and Promotion (Theories, Models & Methods). Sobhan Publication, Tehran, 55-57.
[20] Mehri, A. and Mohaghegh, M. (2010) Utilizing the Health Belief Model to Predict Preventive Behaviors for Heart Diseases in the Students of Islamic Azad University of Sabzevar. Journal of Toloo-E-Behdasht, 9, 21-33.
[21] Masodi, D., Baghiani, M.H., Sharifirad, G. and Falahzade, H. (2012) Evaluation of Preventive Behaviors of Addiction Based on Health Belief Model (HBM) among Male High School Students in Boroujen, Iran. Health System Research, 8, 237-246.
[22] Niksadat, N., Solhi, M., Shojaezade, D. and Gohari, M. (2013) Effective Factors in Prevention of Self-Medication Based on Health Belief Model in Women Referring to the Health Homes in Tehran’s 3rd District, 2012. HealthMed, 7, 174.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.