Effects of Physical Rotational Movement Difference and Handwriting Position on Academic Achievement and Learning Disabilities


Only recently has movement behavior and learning disabilities (LD), including the confusing topic of dyslexia, been considered to be connected. The realization that phonemic problems may often be the “result” of learning issues such as dyslexia, and not the cause, has finally surfaced. This condition is hypothesized as being primarily due to not sensing the sound connection because of the hand feeling the shape of feeling letters incorrectly. This consequently, interferes with the sound value(s) being connected during the learning process. We herein provide the results of an earlier unpublished study, which demonstrates how we obtained these and other classroom results. We provide evidence of movement difference between those with identified LDs and those without LDs, and how this can relate to both left and inverted rotational direction difference. Other movement differences are also identified as modifiers of the achievement difference between the students found in the at-risk populations. As previously described (Young et al., 2012), understanding “reversed positioning sensation” (RPS) can be of great assistance to those with the basic condition known as written language disability (WLD) or dysgraphic conditions, which are often recognized entities of the LD known as dyslexia. This is important, because remediation involves changing the hand position of those affected and is theorized, can change the way the brain senses the direction of learning (i.e., to make letters by processing the sense of feeling them top/down instead of from an inverted sensation of sensing bottom/up movement). That this remedial movement concept is so amazingly simple may be why it has been overlooked for years.

Share and Cite:

Young, R. (2015). Effects of Physical Rotational Movement Difference and Handwriting Position on Academic Achievement and Learning Disabilities. Psychology, 6, 243-250. doi: 10.4236/psych.2015.63024.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Binding Deficit in Dyslexia. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 4, 691-707.
[2] Evans, T. M., Flowers, D. L., Napoliello, E. M., & Eden, G. F. (2013). Sex-Specific Gray Matter Volume Differences in Females with Developmental Dyslexia. Brain Structure Function, 219, 1041-1054.
[3] Jednoróg, K., Gawron, N., Marchewka, A., Heim, S., & Grabowska, A. (2014). Cognitive Subtypes of Dyslexia Are Characterized by Distinct Patterns of Grey Matter. Brain Structure Function, 219, 1697-1707.
[4] Orton, S. T. (1928). Specific Reading Disability—Strephosymbolia. JAMA, 90, 1095-1099.
[5] Packard, M., & Knowlton, B. (2002). Learning and Memory Functions of the Basal Ganglia. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 25, 563-593.
[6] Torgesen, J. K. (2002). The Prevention of Reading Difficulties. Journal of School Psychology, 40, 7-26.
[7] Wagner, R. (1973). Rudolf Berlin: Originator of the Term Dyslexia. Ann Dyslexia, 23, 57-63.
[8] Waldie, K. E., Haigh, C. E., Badzakova-Trajkov, G., & Kirk, B. J. (2013). Reading the Wrong Way with the Right Hemisphere. Brain Sciences, 3, 1060-1075.
[9] Wimmer, H., Schurz, M., Sturm, D., Richlan, F., Klackl, J., Kronbichler, M., & Ladurner, G. (2010). A Dual-Route Perspective on Poor Reading in a Regular Orthography: An fMRI Study. Cortex, 46, 1284-1298.
[10] Young, R. A. (1989). Preferred Directional Rotational Motor Movement of the Fingers and Hands Compared to Reported Receptive/Expressive Written Language Ability. Unpublished Thesis, Storrs: University of Connecticut.
[11] Young, R. A. (2004). Laterality in Kinesthetic Rotation of Movement Orientation and Visual Dominance Interaction as Mediators of Consciousness; Toward a Science of Consciousness. The Consciousness Conference: Toward a Science of Consciousness (pp. 46-47). Abstract #92, University of Arizona, Tucson.
[12] Young, R. A. (2006). Tested Lateral Visual and Motor Behavior Interaction Identify Suspected Aspects of Dyslexia. Behavior Genetics, 36, 952-990.
[13] Young, R. A. (2008). Lost in Space. “Inverted Positioning Sensation” (IPS): As of Yet Unidentified Contributing Cause for ADHD and/or LD. The Consciousness Conference (p. 95). Abstract #121, University of Arizona, Tucson.
[14] Young, R. A., & Ginsburg, B. E. (1987). Genetic Variations in Motor and Cognitive Patterns Associated with Reading Disabilities—Diagnosis and Remediation. Behavior Genetics, 17, 644.
[15] Young, R. A., & Ginsburg, B. E. (1987, 2011). Young-Ginsburg: Lateral Direction Assessment and Spatial Test; “YGLD” Storrs, CT.
[16] Young, R. A., & Ginsburg, B. E. (1993). The Directional Motor Link in Reading Disabilities. In Temporal Information Processing in the Nervous System: Special Reference to Dyslexia and Dysphasia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 682, 436-439.
[17] Young, R. A., & Ginsburg, B. E. (1995). Visuo-Motor Patterns in Dyslexia. Behavior Genetics, 25, 294.
[18] Young, R. A., Ginsburg, B. E., & Bradway, D. (2012). Physical and Behavioral Markers Help Identify Written Language Disability (WLD) Related to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Psychology, 3, 36-44.
[19] Young-Kaple, R. A. (2013). Eye Dominance Difference Connection to LD Learning Disabilities. World Journal of Psychology Research, 1, 1-9.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.