Example Use of Low-Cost System for Capturing the Kinetic Parameters of Sperm Cells in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

DOI: 10.4236/abb.2015.62007   PDF   HTML   XML   4,881 Downloads   5,965 Views   Citations


A spermiogramme is an analysis performed to assess the quality of semen. Motility parameters are primarily obtained by subjectively observing samples or by using complex systems, such as computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). Here, we describe an easy and low-cost analysis system for obtaining quantifiable kinetic observations using Salmo salar semen model. In this work, we observed and captured video images of both fresh and stored Atlantic salmon semen to describe the possibility of analysis using the ImageJ CASA plug-in application for the kinetic parameters obtained from the videos. The semen is exposed to “powermilt”, a commercial activating solution, and the curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight line velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP) values are described. When the samples were activated after having been stored, differences were detected in sperm quality, using the low-cost plug-in application. However, this system was not able to detect small variations in the same recorded sample, suggesting limits in sample observation. The results indicate that it is possible to quantify the kinetic parameters of semen samples using a low-cost video system and free software.

Share and Cite:

Parodi, J. , Ramírez-Reveco, A. and Guerra, G. (2015) Example Use of Low-Cost System for Capturing the Kinetic Parameters of Sperm Cells in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 6, 63-72. doi: 10.4236/abb.2015.62007.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Parodi, J. (2014) Motility, Viability, and Calcium in the Sperm Cells. Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine, 60, 65-71.
[2] Buckman, C., George, T.C., Friend, S., Sutovsky, M., Miranda-Vizuete, A., Ozanon, C., Morrissey, P. and Sutovsky, P. (2009) High Throughput, Parallel Imaging and Biomarker Quantification of Human Spermatozoa by Image Stream Flow Cytometry. Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine, 55, 244-251.
[3] Alladin, N., Moskovtsev, S.I., Russell, H., Kenigsberg, S., Lulat, A.G.-M. and Librach, C.L. (2013) The Three-Dimensional Image Analysis of the Chromocenter in Motile and Immotile Human Sperm. Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine, 59, 146-152.
[4] Butts, I.A., Babiak, I., Ciereszko, A., Litvak, M.K., Slowinska, M., Soler, C. and Trippel, E.A. (2011) Semen Characteristics and Their Ability to Predict Sperm Cryopreservation Potential of Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua L. Theriogenology, 75, 1290-1300.
[5] Ding, F., Lall, S.P., Li, J., Lei, J., Rommens, M. and Milley, J.E. (2011) Cryopreservation of Sperm from Atlantic Halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) for Commercial Application. Cryobiology, 63, 56-60.
[6] Viveiros, A.T. and Godinho, H.P. (2009) Sperm Quality and Cryopreservation of Brazilian Freshwater Fish Species: A Review. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 35, 137-150.
[7] Sanchez-Rodriguez, M. and Billard, R. (1977) Conservation de la motilité et du pouvoir fécondant du sperme de truite arcenciel maintenu à des températures voisines de 0°C. Bulletin Francais De La Peche Et De La Pisciculture, 265, 143-152.
[8] Bobe, J. and Labbe, C. (2009) Egg and Sperm Quality in Fish. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 165, 535-548.
[9] Maldjian, A., Pizzi, F., Gliozzi, T., Cerolini, S., Penny, P. and Noble, R. (2005) Changes in Sperm Quality and Lipid Composition during Cryopreservation of Boar Semen. Theriogenology, 63, 411-421.
[10] Viveiros, A.T., Orfao, L.H., Nascimento, A.F., Correa, F.M. and Caneppele, D. (2012) Effects of Extenders, Cryoprotectants and Freezing Methods on Sperm Quality of the Threatened Brazilian Freshwater Fish Pirapitinga-do-Sul Brycon opalinus (Characiformes). Theriogenology, 78, 361-368.
[11] Beirao, J., Soares, F., Herraez, M.P., Dinis, M.T. and Cabrita, E. (2009) Sperm Quality Evaluation in Solea senegalensis during the Reproductive Season at Cellular Level. Theriogenology, 72, 1251-1261.
[12] Kowalski, R.K., Hliwa, P., Cejko, B.I., Krol, J., Stabinski, R. and Ciereszko, A. (2012) Quality and Quantity of Smelt (Osmerus eperlanus L.) Sperm in Relation to Time after Hormonal Stimulation. Reproductive Biology, 12, 231-246.
[13] Alavi, S.M. and Cosson, J. (2005) Sperm Motility in Fishes. I. Effects of Temperature and pH: A Review. Cell Biology International, 29, 101-110.
[14] Alavi, S.M., Cosson, J., Karami, M., Amiri, B.M. and Akhoundzadeh, M.A. (2004) Spermatozoa Motility in the Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus: Effects of pH, Dilution Rate, Ions and Osmolality. Reproduction, 128, 819-828.
[15] Redondo-Muller, C., Cosson, M.P., Cosson, J. and Billard, R. (1991) In Vitro Maturation of the Potential for Movement of Carp Spermatozoa. Molecular Reproduction and Development, 29, 259-270.
[16] Vladic, T.V. and Jarvi, T. (2001) Sperm Quality in the Alternative Reproductive Tactics of Atlantic salmon: The Importance of the Loaded Raffle Mechanism. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 268, 2375-2381.
[17] Nyina-Wamwiza, L., Milla, S., Pierrard, M.A., Rurangwa, E., Mandiki, S.N., Van Look, K.J. and Kestemont, P. (2011) Partial and Total Fish Meal Replacement by Agricultural Products in the Diets Improve Sperm Quality in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Theriogenology, 77, 184-194.
[18] Viveiros, A.T., Isau, Z.A., Caneppele, D. and Leal, M.C. (2012) Sperm Cryopreservation Affects Postthaw Motility, but Not Embryogenesis or Larval Growth in the Brazilian Fish Brycon insignis (Characiformes). Theriogenology, 78, 803-810.
[19] Wilson-Leedy, J.G. and Ingermann, R.L. (2007) Development of a Novel CASA System Based on Open Source Software for Characterization of Zebrafish Sperm Motility Parameters. Theriogenology, 67, 661-672.
[20] Purchase, C.F. and Earle, P.T. (2012) Modifications to the Imagej Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis Plugin Greatly Improve Efficiency and Fundamentally Alter the Scope of Attainable Data. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 28, 1013-1016.
[21] Sanches, E.A., Marcos, R.M., Okawara, R.Y., Caneppele, D., Bombardelli, R.A. and Romagosa, E. (2013) Sperm Motility Parameters for Steindachneridion parahybae Based on Open-Source Software. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 29, 1114-1122.
[22] Rurangwa, E., Volckaert, F.A., Huyskens, G., Kime, D.E. and Ollevier, F. (2001) Quality Control of Refrigerated and Cryopreserved Semen Using Computer-Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA), Viable Staining and Standardized Fertilization in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Theriogenology, 55, 751-769.
[23] Butts, I.A., Ward, M.A., Litvak, M.K., Pitcher, T.E., Alavi, S.M., Trippel, E.A. and Rideout, R.M. (2011) Automated Sperm Head Morphology Analyzer for Open-Source Software. Theriogenology, 76, 1756-1761.
[24] Lahnsteiner, F., Berger, B., Horvath, A., Urbanyi, B. and Weismann, T. (2000) Cryopreservation of Spermatozoa in Cyprinid Fishes. Theriogenology, 54, 1477-1498.
[25] Ubilla, A. and Valdebenito, I.N. (2011) Use of Antioxidants on Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) Sperm Diluent: Effects on Motility and Fertilizing Capability. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research, 39, 338-343.
[26] Figueroa, E., Risopatron, J., Sanchez, R., Isachenko, E., Merino, O., Isachenko, V. and Valdebenito, I. (2013) Spermatozoa Vitrification of Sex-Reversed Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Effect of Seminal Plasma on Physiological Parameters. Aquaculture, 372, 119-126.
[27] Ramirez, A.R., Castro, M.A., Angulo, C., Ramio, L., Rivera, M.M., Torres, M., Rigau, T., Rodriguez-Gil, J.E. and Concha, I.I. (2009) The Presence and Function of Dopamine Type 2 Receptors in Boar Sperm: A Possible Role for Dopamine in Viability, Capacitation, and Modulation of Sperm Motility. Biology of Reproduction, 80, 753-761.
[28] Dziewulska, K., Rzemieniecki, A., Czerniawski, R. and Domagala, J. (2011) Post-Thawed Motility and Fertility from Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) Sperm Frozen with Four Cryodiluents in Straws or Pellets. Theriogenology, 76, 300-311.
[29] Valdebenito, I.I., Gallegos, P.C. and Effer, B.R. (2013) Gamete Quality in Fish: Evaluation Parameters and Determining Factors. Zygote, 1-21.
[30] Lahnsteiner, F., Berger, B., Grubinger, F. and Weismann, T. (2005) The Effect of 4-Nonylphenol on Semen Quality, Viability of Gametes, Fertilization Success, and Embryo and Larvae Survival in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquatic Toxicology, 71, 297-306.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.