Share This Article:

Efficacy of Pelletized Lime versus Limestone Sand for Forest Regeneration Enhancement in Pennsylvania, USA

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:3079KB) PP. 221-234
DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2015.52020    3,083 Downloads   3,554 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of limestone sand and pelletized lime for remediation of soil acidity was compared in order to determine if limestone sand was a more cost-effective alternative to pelletized lime. Between fall of 2002 and spring 2003, two forested sites in Pennsylvania were clear cut and fenced. Pelletized lime and limestone sand were applied to separate 400-m2 plots within the sites at rates of 2170 kg·ha-1 and 4335 kg·ha-1, respectively. Two additional 400-m2 plots were used as controls. A paired before-after control-impact study design was used to assess changes in soil, soil solution, vegetation and biomass after lime application. Soil samples were collected from the Oi, Oe + Oa, and A horizons before and after lime application. Woody and herbaceous vegetation was harvested from 1-m2 sub-plots before and after liming and bi-weekly soil solution samples were collected for six months following lime application. Analysis of variance procedures were used to compare changes in the treatment plots over time. Changes in soil chemistry following lime application were comparable on the limestone sand and pelletized lime plots. There was a significant increase in exchangeable Mg and Mg saturation in the Oe + Oa horizon on all of the lime treatment plots relative to controls, but a greater percentage of applied Ca and Mg was exchangeable in the O-horizon in pelletized lime plots nine months after liming. Plant biomass did not increase on the lime treatment plots relative to the control one year post treatment. The majority of applied Ca and Mg from pelletized lime and limestone sand remained in the litter layer, with little movement into the A-horizon after one growing season. These results indicated that the application of limestone sand at two times the rate of pelletized lime produced comparable changes in soil and soil solution chemistry at a fraction of the cost.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Mizel, N. , Sharpe, W. and Swistock, B. (2015) Efficacy of Pelletized Lime versus Limestone Sand for Forest Regeneration Enhancement in Pennsylvania, USA. Open Journal of Forestry, 5, 221-234. doi: 10.4236/ojf.2015.52020.

References

[1] Blake, G. R., & Hartge, K. H. (1986). Bulk Density, Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 363-376.
[2] Bolan, N. S., Syers, J. K., Tillman, R. W., & Scotter, D. R. (1988). Effect of Liming and Phosphate Additions on Sulfate Leaching in Soils. Journal of Soil Science, 39, 493-504.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.1988.tb01234.x
[3] Clesceri, L. S., Greenberg, A. E., & Eaton, A. D. (Eds.) (1998). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste-water (20th ed.). American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and Water Environment Federation, Washington DC.
[4] Cronan, C. S., & Grigal, D. F. (1995). Use of Calcium/Aluminum Ratios as Indicators of Stress in Forest Ecosystems. Journal of Environmental Quality, 24, 209-226.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq1995.00472425002400020002x
[5] De Keersmaeker, L., Neirynck, J., Maddelein, D., De Schrijver, A., & Lust, N. (2000). Soil Water Chemistry and Revegetation of a Limed Clearcut in a Nitrogen Saturated Forest. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 122, 49-62.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005238213656
[6] Demchik, M. C., & Sharpe, W. E. (1998). The Effect of Calcium/Aluminum Ratio on Root Elongation of Twenty-Six Pennsylvania Plants. Proceedings of the 1998 PA Acidic Deposition Conference on the Effects of Acidic Deposition on Pennsylvania’s Forests, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 211-217.
[7] Demchik, M. C., & Sharpe, W. E. (2000). The Effect of Soil Nutrition, Soil Acidity and Drought on Northern Red Oak (Quercus rubra L.) Growth and Nutrition on Pennsylvania Sites with High and Low Red Oak Mortality. Forest Ecology and Management, 136, 199-207.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(99)00307-2
[8] Drohan, P. J., Stout, S. L., & Petersen, G. W. (2002). Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) Decline during 1979-1989 in Northern Pennsylvania. Forest Ecology and Management, 170, 1-17.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00688-0
[9] Edwards, P. J., & Wood, F. (1993). Field and Laboratory Quality Assurance/Quality Control Protocols and Accomplishments for the Fernow Experimental Forest Watershed Acidification Study. USDA General Technical Report, NE-177.
[10] Federer, C. A., Hornbeck, J. W., Tritton, L. M., Martin, C. W., Pierce, R. S., & Smith, C. T.(1989). Long-Term Depletion of Calcium and Other Nutrients in Eastern US Forests. Environmental Management, 13, 593-601.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01874965
[11] Geary, R. J., & Driscoll, C. T. (1996). Forest Soil Solutions: Acid/Base Chemistry and Response to Calcite Treatment. Biogeochemistry, 32, 195-220.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02187139
[12] Hallett, R. A., & Hornbeck, J. W. (1997). Foliar and Soil Nutrient Relationships in Red Oak and White Pine Forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27, 1233-1244.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x97-026
[13] Hallowich, J. S. (1988). Soil Survey of Clearfield County Pennsylvania. Soil Conservation Service, US Department of Agriculture.
[14] Long, R. P., Horsley, S. B., & Lilja, P. R. (1997). Impact of Forest Liming on Growth and Crown Vigor of Sugar Maple and Associated Hardwoods. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27, 1560-1573.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x97-074
[15] Lynch, J. A. (1999). Atmospheric Deposition in Pennsylvania. Proceedings of the 1998 PA Acidic Deposition Conference on the Effects of Acidic Deposition on Pennsylvania’s Forests, University Park, 245-257.
[16] Marschner, B. (1993). Microbial Contribution to Sulfate Mobilization after Liming an Acid Forest Soil. Journal of Soil Science, 44, 459-466.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.1993.tb00468.x
[17] Miller, R. O. (1998). High-Temperature Oxidation: Dry Ashing. In Y. Kalra (Ed.), Handbook and Reference Methods for Plant Analysis. New York: CRC Press.
[18] MiniTab for Windows (2000). Version 13.3. MiniTab Inc.
[19] Mitchell, M. J., McGee, G., McHale, P., & Weathers, K. C. (2001). Experimental Design and Instrumentation for Analyzing Solute Concentrations and Fluxes for Quantifying Biogeochemical Processes in Watersheds. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference in Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in East Asian and Pacific Region, Lake Hovsgol, 2-5 July 2001.
[20] Pabian, S. E., Rummel, S. M, Sharpe, W. E., & Brittingham, M. C. (2012). Terrestrial Liming as a Restoration Technique for Acidified Forest Ecosystems. International Journal of Forestry Research, 2012, Article ID: 976809.
[21] Schreffler, A. M., & Sharpe, W. E. (2003). Effects of Lime, Fertilizer, and Herbicide on Forest Soil and Soil Solution Chemistry, Hardwood Regeneration, and Hardwood Growth Following Shelterwood Harvest. Forest Ecology and Management, 177, 471-484.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(02)00452-8
[22] Shepard, J. P., Mitchell, M. J., Scott, T. J., & Driscoll, C. T. (1990). Soil Solution Chemistry of an Adirondack Spodosol: Lysimetry and N Dynamics. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 20, 818-824.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x90-108
[23] Simmons, J. A., Yavitt, J. B., & Fahey, T. J. (1996). Watershed Liming Effects on the Forest Floor N Cycle. Biogeochemistry, 32, 221-244.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02187140
[24] Swistock, B. R., Yamona, J. J., De Walle, D., & Sharpe, W. E. (1990). Comparison of Soil Water Chemistry and Samples Size Requirements for Pan vs. Tension Lysimeters. Water Air Soil Pollution, 50, 387-396.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00280637
[25] Taylor, D. C., Churchill, N. J., Losche, C. K., Mentzer, S. D., & Weaver, J. B. (1968). Soil Survey of Westmoreland County Pennsylvania. Soil Conservation Service, US Department of Agriculture, USA.
[26] Tomlinson, G. H., & Tomlinson, R. L. (Eds.) (1990). Effects of Acid Deposition of the Forests of Europe and North America. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc.
[27] USEPA (1986). Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste (Volume IA, 3rd ed.). EPA/SW-846, Springfield, VA: National Technical Information Service.
[28] Wolf, A. M., & Beegle, D. B. (1995). Recommended Soil Tests for Macronutrients: Phosphorous, Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium. In T. J. Sims, & A. Wolf (Eds.), Recommended Soil Testing Procedures for the Northeastern United States: Northeast Regional Bulletin #493 (pp. 25-34). Newark, DE: Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Delaware.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.