Correlation Analytics of Blue-Collar Employees’ Organizational Levels in Coal Mining*


The aims of this study are determining the organizational burnout, organizational commitment and job performance levels of the employees that work in coal mining and finding out the influences of these levels upon each other. In accordance with this purpose, a study, which is aimed at blue-collar workers that work within the facilities of Turkish Hard Coal Enterprise (TTK)—Turkey’s biggest coal operation, was carried out. Survey technique was used in this study, and the prepared questionnaires were conducted to 1238 blue-collar workers through face-to-face method. Maslach’s “Maslach Burnout Inventory” and Allen and Meyer’s “Organizational Commitment Scale” were taken as bases in the preparation of these questionnaires. The data obtained in the research was analyzed through correlation and regression analyses, one-way analysis and independent-samples T-test. In the result of the analyses carried out, a significant relation was not found between the organizational commitment and the organizational burnout levels and between the organizational commitment and the job performances of blue-collar workers, while it was determined that 1 unit of increase in organizational burnout level caused 0.460 unit of decrease in job performance. However, the determination of both high organizational burnout and high worker performance in the same TTK organization was interpreted as the development of organizational burnout based on performance, which is rarely seen in the literature.

Share and Cite:

Uysal, H. and Kesim, E. (2015) Correlation Analytics of Blue-Collar Employees’ Organizational Levels in Coal Mining*. Open Journal of Business and Management, 3, 83-95. doi: 10.4236/ojbm.2015.31009.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Hard Coal Report (2010) Chamber of Mining Engineers of Turkey.
[2] TWBG (2007) Coal Mining and Production.
[3] TTK (2013) Hard Coal Sector Report.
[4] ünalan, G. (2003) General Evaluation of Energy Resources of Turkey. Geotogicat Engineering Journal, 27, 17-44.
[5] Korkmaz, O. (2011) The Relationship between Work Accident and Productivity: A Case Study in Turkish Hard Coal Enterprise. Journal of Yasar University, 23, 3805-3813.
[6] Dargah, G.D. and Estalkhbijari, Z.P. (2012) The Relationship between the Big Five Personality Factors and Job Burnout. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 11, 1842-1850.
[7] Kraft, U. (2006) The Burned Out. Scientific American Mind, June/July, 28-33.
[8] Maslach, C. and Jackson, S.E. (1981) The Measurement of Experienced Burnout. Journal of Occupational Behaviour, 2, 99-113.
[9] Sarros, J.C. and Densten, I.L. (1989) Undergraduate Student Stress and Coping Strategies. Higher Education Research and Development, 8, 47-57.
[10] Campagne, D.M. (2012) When Therapists Run out of Steam: ProfessIonal Boredom or Burnout? Revista de Psicopatología y Psicología Clínica, 17, 75-85.
[11] Pines, A.M. and Aronson, E. (1988) Career Bumout: Causes and Cures. Free Press, New York.
[12] Enzmann, D., Schaufeli, W.B., Janssen, P. and Rozeman, A. (1998) Dimensionality and Validity of the Burnout Measure. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 71, 331-351.
[13] Katyal, S. (2013) Burnout among Nurses Working in Government and Private Hospitals. Studies on Home and Community Science, 7, 83-85.
[14] Nagar, K. (2012) Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction among Teachers during Times of Burnout. Vikalpa, 37, 43-60.
[15] Fiksenbaum, L., Marjanovic, Z., Greenglass, E.R. and Coffey, S. (2006) Emotional Exhaustion and State Anger in Nurses Who Worked during the SARS Outbreak: The Role of Perceived Threat and Organizational Support. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 25, 89-103.
[16] Paris, M. and Huge, M. (2010) Burnout in the Mental Health Workforce: A Review. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 37, 519-528.
[17] Salanova, M., Llorens, S., García-Renedo, M., Burriel, R., Bresó, E. and Schaufeli, W.B. (2005) Towards a Four-Dimensional Model of Burnout: A Multigroup Factor-Analytic Study Including Depersonalization and Cynicism. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 65, 807-819.
[18] Ullah, S. (2012) Behavioral Troubles for the Newcomer Doctors in the Public Sector Hospitals of Pakistan. Asian Journal of Health, 2, 1-15.
[19] Principal, P. and Chhabra, U. (2012) A Study of Burnout among Secondary School Teachers in Relation to Their Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Commitment. International Journal of Computer Science and Communication Engineering, 2, 54-60.
[20] Schaufeli, W.B. and Greenglass, E.R. (2001) Introduction to Special Issue on Burnout and Health. Psychology and Health, 16, 501-510.
[21] Emmerik, H.V., Jawahar, I.M. and Stone, T.H. (2005) Associations among Altruism, Burnout Dimensions and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour. Work & Stress, 19, 93-100.
[22] Dorman, J. (2003) Testing a Model for Teacher Burnout. Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology, 3, 35-47.
[23] Knani, M. and Fournier, P.S. (2013) Burnout, Job Characteristics, and Intent to Leave: Does Work Experience Have Any Effect. Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences, 4, 403-408.
[24] Ozler, D.E., Atalay C.G. and Sahin, M.D. (2010) Orgütlerde Sinizm Güvensizlikle Mi Bulasir? Organizasyon ve Yonetim Bilimleri Dergisi, 2, 47-57.
[25] McShane, S.L. and Von Glinow, M.A. (2003) Organizational Behaviour. International Edition, McGraw-Hill Education, New York.
[26] Sigri, ü. and Basim, N. (2006) Is Gorenlerin Is Doyumu Ile Orgütsel Baglilik Düzeylerinin Analizi: Kamu ve Ozel Sektorde Karsilastirmali Bir Arastirma. Selcuk üniversitesi Iktisadi ve Idari Bilimler Fakültesi Sosyal ve Ekonomik Arastirmalar Dergisi, 12, 131-154.
[27] Cook, J. and Wall, T. (1980) New Work Attitude Measures of Trust, Organizational Commitment and Personal Need Non-Fulfilment. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 53, 39-52.
[28] Meyer, J.P., Stanley, D.J., Herscovitch, L. and Topolnytsky, L. (2002) Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to the Organization: A Meta-Analysis of Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 20-52.
[29] O’Driscoll, M.P. and Donna, M.R. (1999) Perceived Organisational Support, Satisfaction with Rewards, and Employee Job Involvement and Organisational Commitment. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 48, 197-209.
[30] Commeiras, N. and Fournier, C. (2001) Critical Evaluation of Porter et al.’s Organizational Commitment Questionnaire: Implications for Researchers. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 17, 239-245.
[31] Chang, E. (1999) Career Commitment as a Complex Moderator of Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention. Human Relations, 52, 1257-1278.
[32] Fu, F.Q., Bolander, W. and Jones, E. (2009) Managing the Drivers of Organizational Commitment and Salesperson Effort: An Application of Meyer and Allen’s Three-Component Model. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 17, 335-350.
[33] Karim, N.H. and Noor, N.H. (2006) Evaluating The Psychometric Properties of Allen and Meyer’s Organizational Commitment Scale: A Cross Cultural Application among Malaysian Academic Librarians. Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science, 11, 89-101.
[34] Prabhakar, G.V. and Ram, P. (2011) Antecedent HRM Practices for Organizational Commitment. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2, 55-62.
[35] Allen, N.J. and Meyer, J.P. (1990) The Measurement and Antecedents of Affective, Continuance and Normative Commitment to the Organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 1-18.
[36] Scullen, S.E., Mount, M.K. and Goff, M. (2000) Understanding the Latent Structure of Job Performance Eatings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 54-60.
[37] Shamsuddin, N. and Rahman, R.A. (2014) The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Job Performance of Call Centre Agents. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 129, 75-81.
[38] Yozgat, U., Yurtkoru, S. and Bilginoglu, E. (2013) Job Stress and Job Performance among Employees in Public Sector in Istanbul: Examining the Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 75, 518-524.
[39] Borman, W.C. and Motowidlo, S.J. (1993) Expanding the Criterion Domain to Include Elements of Contextual Performance. In: Schmitt, N. and Borman, W.C., Eds., Personnel Selection in Organizations, Wiley, New York, 71-98.
[40] Jankingthong, K. and Rurkkhum, S. (2012) Factors Affecting Job Performance: A Review of Literature. Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts, 12, 115-127.
[41] Muchhal, D.S. (2014) HR Practices and Job Performance. Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19, 55-61.
[42] Yun, S., Takeuchi, R. and Liu, W. (2007) Employee Self-Enhancement Motives and Job Performance Behaviors: Investigating the Moderating Effects of Employee Role Ambiguity and Managerial Perceptions of Employee Commitment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 745-756.
[43] Scotter, J.R.V., Motowidlo, S.J. and Cross, T.C. (2000) Effects of Task Perfonnance and Contextual Performance on Systemic Rewards. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 526-535.
[44] Borman, W.C. and Motowidlo, S.J. (1997) Task Performance and Contextual Performance: The Meaning for Personnel Selection Research. Human Performance, 10, 99-109.
[45] Kahya, E. (2007) The Effects of Job Characteristics and Working Condition on Job Performance. International Journal on Industrial Ergonomics, 37, 515-523.
[46] Mansi, G. and Levy, Y. (2013) Do Instant Messaging Interruptions Help or Hinder Knowledge Workers’ Task Performance? International Journal of Information Management, 33, 591-596.
[47] Rahman, A. and Badayai, A. (2012) Theoretical Framework and Analytical Discussion on Uncongenial Physical Workplace Environment and Job Performance among Workers in Industrial Sectors. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 42, 486-495.
[48] Mclaggan, E., Bezuidenhout, A. and Botha, C.T. (2013) Leadership Style and Organisational Commitment in the Mining Industry in Mpumalanga. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 11, 483-492.
[49] Kowalski, K.M. and Podlesny, A. (2000) The Effects of Disaster on Workers: A Study of Burnout in Investigators of Serious Accidents and Fatalities in the US Mining Industry. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Pennsylvania.
[50] Talachi, R.K. and Gorji, M.B. (2013) Job Burnout and Job Satisfaction among Industry, Mine and Trade Organization Employees: A Questionnaire Survey. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 3, 21-41.
[51] Yusuf, R.M., Hamid, N., Eliyana, A., Bahri, S. and Sudarisman, A. (2012) The Antecedents of Employee’s Performance: Case Study of Nickel Mining’s Company, Indonesia. Journal of Business and Managements, 2, 22-28.
[52] Meyer, J.P., Paunonen, S.V., Gellaty, I.R., Goffin, R.D. and Jackson, D.N. (1989) Organizational Commitment and Job Performance: It’s the Nature of the Commitment That Counts. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 152-156.
[53] Salehi, M. and Gholtash, A. (2011) The Relationship between Job Satisfaction, Job Burnout and Organizational Commitment with the Organizational Citizenship Behavior among Members of Faculty in the Islamic Azad University-First District Branches, in Order to Provide the Appropriate Model. Procedia Social and Behavior Sciences, 15, 306-310.
[54] Günes, I., Bayraktaroglu, S. and Kutanis, R.O. (2009) A Relationship on Organizational Commitment of Emploless and Burnout Level: Sample from a State University, Suleyman Demirel University. The Journal of Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, 143, 481-497.
[55] Marmaya, N.H., Zawawi, N., Hitam, M. and Jody, J.M. (2011) Organizational Commitment and Job Burnout among Employees in Malaysia. International Conference on Business and Economics Research, 1, 185-197.
[56] Cropanzano, R., Rupp, D.E. and Byrne, Z.S. (2003) The Relationship of Emotional Exhaustion to Work Attitudes, Job Performance, and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 160-169.
[57] Yiing, L.H. and Ahmad, K.Z.B. (2009) The Moderating Effects of Organizational Culture on the Relationships between Leadership Behaviour and Organizational Commitment and between Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction and Performance. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 30, 53-86.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.