Methods to Minimize Optical Noise That Degrade Fluorescence Efficiency of Optical Probe for Near-Infrared Tracking in Surgical Environment


In the medical field, there are growing interests in applied research such as in vivo fluorescence monitoring because of excellent body transmission characteristic of the near-infrared light. However, optical noise by excitation light and illumination equipment for medical applications such as interior light, surgical light decrease efficiency of the fluorescent signal when observers such as surgeons confirm fluorescence signals in medical field. To solve these problems in medical field, we have analyzed external noise factors by effect on image realization, quantification of optical noise generation by external factors, and have suggested methods of minimize the optical noise in this paper. In case of fluorescence imaging in the operating room, it has been confirmed that fluorescent excitation light, interior light and surgical light are factors to generate optical noise. To acquire near-infrared fluorescence images and to compare fluorescence contrast under conditions of darkroom, interior light and surgical light, light emitting diodes (LEDs) sources that have peak wavelength at 740, 760 and 780 nm respectively were used as excitation light sources. In addition, short-pass filter which has transmission edge at 775 nm has been applied to minimize the optical noise in each external noise factor. By comparing contrast of each image before and after use of the short-pass filter, we confirmed that optical noise reduced 49%, 56% and 66% in external noise factors respectively.

Share and Cite:

Park, H. , Shin, I. , Park, J. , Eom, J. , Kim, S. and Lee, B. (2015) Methods to Minimize Optical Noise That Degrade Fluorescence Efficiency of Optical Probe for Near-Infrared Tracking in Surgical Environment. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 8, 56-65. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2015.81006.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Lee, B.-I., Kim, H.S., Jeong, H.J., Lee, H.J., Moon, S.M., Kwon, S.Y., Choi, E.S., Jeong, S.Y., Bom, H.S. and Min, J.J. (2009) Development of Optical Molecular Imaging System for the Acquisition of Bioluminescence Signals from Small Animals. Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 43, 344-351.
[2] Leblond, F., Davis, S.C., Valdés, P.A. and Pogue, B.W. (2010) Pre-Clinical Whole-Body Fluorescence Imaging: Review of Instruments, Methods and Applications. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 98, 77-94.
[3] Kim, D.E. (2006) Molecular Optical Imaging in Neuroscience. Journal of the Korean Neurological Association, 24, 101-105.
[4] Alander, J.T., Kaartinen, I., Laakso, A., Patila, T., Spillmann, T., Tuchin, V.V., Venermo, M. and Valisuo, P. (2012) A Review of Indocyanine Green Fluorescent Imaging in Surgery. Journal of Biomedical Imaging, 2012, 1-26.
[5] Ntziachristos, V. (2006) Fluorescence Molecular Imaging. Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, 8, 1-33.
[6] Shin, I.H., Kim, S.K., Eom, J.B., Park, J.S., Park, H.J., Park, I.K. and Lee, B.-I. (2013) Novel Imaging System for Positioning of the Indocyanine Green (ICG) Target; Visible Projection of the Near-Infrared Fluorescence Image. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 6, 896-900.
[7] Shin, I.H., Eom, J.B., Park, J.S., Park, H.J. and Lee, B.-I. (2014) Optical Probe for Near-Infrared (NIR) Fluorescence Signal Detection with High Optical Performance and Thermal Stability. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 7, 792-798.
[8] Gioux, S., Choi, H.S. and Frangioni, J.V. (2010) Image-Guided Surgery Using Invisible Near-Infrared Light: Fundamentals of Clinical Translaton. Molecular Imaging, 9, 237-255.
[9] Frangioni, J.V. (2003) In Vivo Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging. Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, 7, 626-634.
[10] Boddington, S.E., Henning, T.D., Jha, P., Schlieve, C.R., Mandrussow, L., DeNardo, D., Bernstein, H.S., Ritner, C., Golovko, D., Lu, Y., Zhao S. and Daldrup-Link, H.E. (2010) Labeling Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes with Indocyanine Green for Noninvasive Tracking with Optical Imaging: An FDA-Compatible Alternative to Firefly Luciferase. Cell Transplantation, 19, 55-65.
[11] Kongmire, M.R., Gunn, A.J., Morgan, N.Y., Smith, P.D., Pohida, T.J., Koyama, Y., Kobayashi, H. and Choyke, P.L. (2007) Real-Time Fluorescence-Enhanced Imaging as an Aid to Surgery in Ovarian Cancer. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 13, 1602-1609.
[12] Keereweer, S., Kerrebijn, J.D.F., van Driel, P.B.A.A., Xie, B., Kaijzel, E.L., Snoeks, T.J.A., Que, I., Hutteman, M., van der Vorst, J.R., Mieog, J., Sven D., Vahrmeijer, A.L., van de Velde, C.J.H., Baatengurg de Jong, R.J. and Lowik, C.W.G.M. (2011) Optical Image-Guided Surgery—Where Do We Stand? Molecular Imaging and Biology, 13, 199-207.
[13] Frangioni, J.V. (2008) New Technologies for Human Cancer Imaging. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 26, 4012-4021.
[14] Marshall, M.V., Rasmussen, J.C., Tan, I.C., Aldrich, M.B., Adams, K.E., Wang, X., Fife, C.E., Maus, A., Smith, L.A. and Sevick-Muraca, E.M. (2010) Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging in Humans with Indocyanine Green: A Review and Update. Open Surgical Oncology Journal, 2, 12-25.
[15] Waseda, K., Ako, J., Hasegawa, T., Shimada, Y., Ikeno, F., Ishikawa, T., Demura, Y., Hatada, K., Yock, P.G., Honda, Y., Fitzgerald, P.J. and Takahashi, M. (2009) Intraoperative Fluorescence Imaging System for On-Site Assessment of Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft. The Journal of the American College of Cardiology Cardiovascular Imaging, 2, 604-612.
[16] Choi, M.H., Choi, K.S., Ryu, S-W., Lee, J.W. and Choi, C.H. (2011) Dynamic Fluorescence Imaging for Multiparametric Measurement of Tumor Vasculature. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 16, Article ID: 046008.
[17] Sano, K., Mitsunaga, M., Nakajima, T., Choyke, P.L. and Kobayashi, H. (2012) In Vivo Breast Cancer Characterization Imaging Using Two Monoclonal Antibodies Activatably Labeled with Near Infrared Fluorophores. Breast Cancer Research, 14, R61.
[18] Yokoyama, J., Ito, S., Ohba, S., Fujimaki, M. and Ikeda, K. (2011) A Novel Approach to Translymphatic Chemotherapy Targeting Sentinel Lymph Nodes of Patients with Oral Cancer Using Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy—Preliminary Study. Head & Neck Oncology, 3, 1-6.
[19] Tanaka, E., Choi, H.S., Fujii, H., Bawendi, M.G. and Frangioni, J.V. (2006) Image-Guided Oncologic Surgery Using Invisible Light: Completed Pre-Clinical Development for Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 13, 1671-1681.
[20] Matsui, A., Lee, B.T., Winer, J.H., Kianzad, V. and Frangioni, J.V. (2009) Image-Guided Perforator Flap Design Using Invisible Near-Infrared Light and Validation with X-Ray angiography. Annals of Plastic Surgery, 63, 327-330.
[21] Morita, Y., Sakaguchi, T., Unno, N., Shibasaki, Y., Suzuki, A., Fukumoto, K., Inaba, K., Baba, S., Takehara, Y., Suzuki, S. and Konno, H. (2013) Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinomas with Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Using Indocyanine Green: Its Usefulness and Limitation. International Journal of Clinical Oncology, 18, 232-241.
[22] Abe, H., Mori, T., Umeda, T., Tanaka, M., Kawai, Y., Shimizu, T., Cho, H., Kubota, Y., Kurumi, Y. and Tani, T. (2011) Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Imaging System for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsies in Early Breast Cancer Patients. Surgery Today, 41, 197-202.
[23] Yamamoto, M., Orihashi, K. and Sato, T. (2013) Intraoperative Indocyanine Green Imaging Technique in Cardiovascular Surgery. InTech, 81-97.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.