Production of Activated Carbon and Characterization from Snail Shell Waste (Helix pomatia)


Snail shell waste (Helix pomatia) has been evaluated as raw material for the preparation of activated carbon using ZnCl2 and CaCl2 with the temperature ranging from 500°C to 800°C. The activated carbon prepared was characterized, showing effect of temperature on ash content, pore volume and porosity. The adsorption isotherm for methylene blue was carried out on the activated carbon in a batch study. The adsorbent exhibited excellent adsorption for methylene blue. The experimental data were used for both Langmuir and Freundlich models. The adsorption coefficients of Langmuir isotherm were found to be 0.996 and 0.957 for CaCl2 and ZnCl2 while 0.969 and 0.962 were obtained for the Freundlich isotherm respectively. The value of RL was found to be 0.75 and 0.38 for samples CC and ZZ respectively, which is an indication that activated carbon impregnated with CaCl2 and ZnCl2 is favourable for adsorption of methylene blue under the conditions used in this study.

Share and Cite:

Gumus, R. and Okpeku, I. (2015) Production of Activated Carbon and Characterization from Snail Shell Waste (Helix pomatia). Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science, 5, 51-61. doi: 10.4236/aces.2015.51006.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Zang, F.S., Nriagu, J.O. and Ho, H. (2005) Mercury Removal from Waste Water Using Activated Carbons Derived from Organic Sewage Sludge. Water Research, 39, 389-395.
[2] Barret, E.P., Joyner, P.B. and Hatenda, P. (1951) The Determination of Pore Volume and Area Distribution in Porous Substances. Computations from Nitrogen Isotherms. Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 73, 373-380.
[3] Sricharoenchaikal, V., Pechyen, C., Ahl-ong, D. and Atong, D. (2007) Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon from the Pyrolysis of Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.) Waste Energy. Fuels, 22, 31-37.
[4] Rezaee, A., Godini, H. and Khavanin, A. (2008) Application of Impregnated Almond Shell Activated Carbon by Zine and Zine Sulfate for Nitrate Removal from Water. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering, 5, 125-130.
[5] Jabit, N.B. (2007) The Production and Characterization of Activated Carbon Using Local Agricultural Waste through Chemical Activation Process.
[6] Rahmani, K., Mahvi, A.H., Vaezi, F., Mesdaghinia, A.R., Nabizade, R. and Nazmara, S. (2009) Bio Removal of Lead by Use of Waste Activated Sludge. International Journal of Environmental Research, 3, 471-476.
[7] Rahman, M.A., Asadultah, M., Haque, M.M., Motin, M.A., Sultan, M.B. and Azad, M.A.K. (2006) Preparation and Characterization of Activated Charcoal as an Adsorbent. Journal of Surface Science and Technology, 22, 133-140.
[8] Atuyor, E.O. and Badmus, M.A. (2008) COD Removal from Industrial Waste Water Using Activated Carbon Prepared from Animal Horns. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7, 3887-3891.
[9] El-Sheikh, A.H., Newman, A.P., Al-Daffa, H.K. and Crosswell, N. (2003) Characterization of Activated Carbon Prepared from a Single Cultivar of Jordanian Olive Stones by Chemical and Physico Chemical Techniques. Journal of Analytical Applied Pyrolysis, 30, 1-16.
[10] Razada, R., Otoro, M., Moran, A. and Garcia, A.L. (2005) Activated Carbon from Sewage Sludge and Discarded Tyres: Production and Optimization. Journal of Harzadous Materials, 124, 181-191.
[11] Kenneth, C.L., Nasrin, R.K., Marta, C., Giselle, S. and Thiyagarajan, P. (2002) Micro Structural Analysis of Activated Carbons Prepared from Paper Mill Sludge by SANS and BET. Chemical Materials, 14, 327-333.
[12] Girgis, B.S., Khalil, L.B. and Tawfik, T.A.M. (1994) Activated Carbon from Sugar Cane Bagasse by Carbonization in the Presence of Inorganic Acids. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 61, 87-92.
[13] Suzuti, M., Matsuzaka, A., Yamada, S., Shimono, M., Abiko, Y. and Lnoue, T. (2006) Morphology of Malassez’s Epithelial Rest-Like Cells in the Cementum: Transmission Electron Microscopy, Immunohistochemical, and TdT-Mediated dUTP-Biotin Nick End Labeling Studies. Journal of Periodontal Research, 41, 280-287.
[14] Ademituyi, F.T., Gumus, R.H., Adejini, S.M. and Jasem, O.T. (2009) Effect of Process Conditions on the Characterization of Activated Carbon from Waste Nigerian Bamboo. Journal of the Nigerian Society of Chemical Engineers, 24, 83-94.
[15] Ahmedna, M., Ctarke, S.J., Rao, R.M., Marshatt, W.E. and Johns, M.M. (1997) Use of Filtration and Buffers in Raw Sugar Colour Measurements. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 75, 109-116.<109::AID-JSFA849>3.0.CO;2-Y
[16] Baker, F.S., Mitter, C.E., Repic, A.J. and Tottes, E.D. (1992) Activated Carbon. Kirk-Othmer Encyctopedia of Chemicat Technotogy, 4, 1015-1037.
[17] Et-Hendway, A.A. (2003) Influence of HNO3 Oxidation on the Structured and Adsorptive Properties of Corncob Activated Carbon. Carbon, 41, 713-722.
[18] Smisek, M. and Cerney, S. (1970) Active Carbon: Manufacture, Properties and Applications. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 286-290.
[19] Puziy, A.M., Poddubnaya, O.T., Matinez-Atonso, A., Suaraz-Gareia, F. and Tascon, J.M.D. (2002) Characterization of Synthetic Carbon Activated with Phosphoric Acid. Applied Surface Science, 200, 196-202.
[20] Thomas, J.M. and Thomas, W.J. (1997) Principles and Practices of Heterogenous Catalysis. VCH Vertagsgeseldschaft MBH, Wanham, Federal Republic of Germany, 267-273.
[21] Srinivaskannan, C. and Abu Baker, M.Z. (2004) Production of Activated Carbon from Rubber Wood Sawdust. Biomass and Bio-Energy, 27, 89-96.
[22] Rengaraj, S., Moon, S.-H., Sivabalan, R., Arabindoo, B. and Murugesan, V. (2002) Agricultural Solid Waste for the Removal of Organics: Adsorption of Phenol from Water and Waste Water by Palm Seed Coat Activated Carbon. Waste Management, 22, 543-548.
[23] Laine, J., Catafat, A. and Labady, M. (1989) Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbons from Coconut Shell Impregnated with Phosphoric Acid. Carbon, 27, 191-195.
[24] Ahmedna, M., Johns, M.M., Ctarke, S.J., Marshall, W.E. and Rao, R.M. (1997) Potential of Agricultural By-Product-Based Activated Carbon for Use in Raw Sugar Decolourisation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 75, 117-124.<117::AID-JSFA850>3.0.CO;2-M
[25] Lafi, W. (2001) Production of Activated Carbon from Acorns and Olive Seeds. Biomass and Bioenergy, 20, 57-62.
[26] El-Sheikh, A.H., Newman, A.P., Al-Daffaee, H.K., Phull, S. and Cresswell, N. (2003) Characterization of Activated Carbon Prepared from a Single Cultivar of Jordanian Olive Stones by Chemical and Physicochemical Techniques. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 30, 1-16.
[27] Ahmedna, M., Marshall, W.E. and Rao, R.M. (2000) Production of Granular Activated Carbon from Select Agricultural By-Products and Evaluation of That Physical, Chemical and Adsorption Properties. Bioresource Technology, 71, 113-121.
[28] Menendez, J.A., Dominquez, A., Lguanzo, M. and Pis, J.J. (2005) Microwave Induced Drying, Pyrolysis and Gasification (MWDPG) of Sewage Sludge: Verification of the Solid Residue. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 74, 406-412.
[29] Akash, B.A. and O’Brien, W.S. (1996) The Production of Activated Carbon from Bituminous Coal. International Journal of Energy Resources, 20, 913-922.<913::AID-ER205>3.0.CO;2-7
[30] Khalili, N.R, Campbell, M., Sandi, G. and Gola, J. (2000) Production of Micro and Mesoporous Activated Carbon from Paper Mill Sludge, Effect of Zinc Chloride Activation. Carbon, 38, 1905-1915.
[31] Rozada, F., Calvo, L.F., García, A.I., Martín-Villacorta, J. and Otero, M. (2003) Dye Adsorption by Sewage Sludge-Based Activated Carbons in Batch and Fixed-Bed Systems. Bioresource Technology, 87, 221-230.
[32] Mui, E.L.K., Ko, D.C.K. and McKay, G. (2004) Production of Active Carbons from Waste Tyres. Carbon, 42, 2789-2805.
[33] Yue, Z., Economy, J. and Bordson, G. (2006) Preparation and Characterization of NaOH-Activated Carbons from Phenolic Resin. Journal of Material Chemistry, 16, 1456-1461.
[34] Lee, K.M. and Lim, P.E. (2003) Treatment of Phenolic Waste Water Using Agricultural Wastes Such as Adsorbent in a Sequencing Batch Reactor. Water Science Technology, 47, 41-47.

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.