Total Phenols and Flavonoids Content, Antioxidant Capacity and Lipase Inhibition of Root and Leaf Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) Extracts


Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana Gaertn) is a perennial crop belonging to the Brassicaceae family, widely used as spice in food and as herbal ingredient in ethno-medicine. This study evaluated the phenolic compounds content, antioxidant capacity and anti-lipase activity of methanol, methanol/water (70/30, v/v) and methanol/water (50/50, v/v) extracts of horseradish roots and leaves. Among the extracts tested, both roots and leaves aqueous methanolic (70/30, v/v and 50/50, v/v) extracts showed higher total phenol and flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity than the corresponding methanol extracts. But extraction yield was high for methanol/ water (50/50, v/v) extracts, in both roots and leaves. The extracts exhibited anti-lipase activity in dose-dependent manner. The results showed that the extraction yield and the antioxidant capacity were strictly dependent on the solvent polarity. The results suggest that A. rusticana could provide opportunities for the development of functional food and further in vivo studies for obesity treatment.

Share and Cite:

Calabrone, L. , Larocca, M. , Marzocco, S. , Martelli, G. and Rossano, R. (2015) Total Phenols and Flavonoids Content, Antioxidant Capacity and Lipase Inhibition of Root and Leaf Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) Extracts. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 64-74. doi: 10.4236/fns.2015.61008.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Agneta, R., Mollers, C. and Rivelli, A.R. (2013) Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), a Neglected Medical and Condiment Species with a Relevant Glucosinolate Profile: A Review. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 60, 19231943.
[2] Kushad, M.M., Brown, A.F., Kurilich, A.C., Juvik, J.A., Klein, P., Wallig, M.A. and Jeffery, E.H. (1999) Variation of Glucosinolates in Vegetable Crops of Brassica oleracea. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47, 1541-1548.
[3] Van Poppel, G., Verhoeven, D.T., Verhagen, H. and Goldbohm, R.A. (1999) Brassica Vegetables and Cancer Prevention. Epidemiology and Mechanism. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 472, 159-168.
[4] Zhang, L., Tan, Q., Lee, R., Trethewy, A., Lee, Y.H. and Tegeder, M. (2010) Altered Xylem-Phloem Transfer of Amino Acids Affects Metabolism and Leads to Increased Seed Yield and Oil Content in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell, 22, 3603-3620.
[5] Mazza, G. (1984) Volatiles in Distillates of Fresh, Dehydrated and Freeze Dried Horseradish. Canadian Institute of Food Sciences and Technology Journal, 17, 18-23.
[6] Majewska, A., Balasińska, B. and Dabrowska, B. (2004) Antioxidant Properties of Leaf and Root Extract and Oil from Different Types of Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana Gaertn). Folia Horticolturae, 16, 15-22.
[7] Velioglu, Y.S., Mazza, G., Gao, L. and Oomah, B.D. (1998) Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolics in Selected Fruits, Vegetables, and Grain Products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46, 4113-4117.
[8] Kawaguchi, K., Mizuno, T., Aida, K., Uchino, K. (1997) Hesperidin as an Inhibitor of Lipases from Porcine Pancreas and Pseudomonas. Biosciences and Biotechnology Biochemistry, 61, 102-104.
[9] Moreno, D., Ripoll, C., Ilic, N., Poulev, A., Aubin, C. and Raskin, I. (2006) Inhibition of Lipid Metabolic Enzymes Using Mangifera indica Extracts. Journal of Food Agricultural Environmental, 4, 21-26.
[10] Nakai, M., Fukui, Y., Asami, S., Toyoda-Ono, Y., Iwashita, T., Shibata, H., Mitsunaga, T., Hashimoto, F. and Kiso, Y. (2005) Inhibitory Effects of Oolong Tea Polyphenols on Pancreatic Lipase in Vitro. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 4593-4598.
[11] Shin, J.E., Joo Han, M. and Kim, D.H. (2003) 3-Methylethergalangin Isolated from Alpinia officinarum Inhibits Pancreatic Lipase. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 26, 854-857.
[12] Kopelman, P.G. (2000) Obesity as a Medical Problem. Nature, 404, 635-643.
[13] Verger, R. (1997) Interfacial Activation of Lipases: Facts and Antifacts. Trends in Biosciences, 15, 32-37.
[14] Birari, R.B. and Bhutani, K.K. (2007) Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitors from Natural Sources: Unexplored Potential. Drug Discovery Today, 12, 879-889.
[15] Kim, Y.S., Lee, Y.M., Kim, H., Kim, J., Jang, D.S., Kim, J.H. and Kim, J.S. (2010) Anti-Obesity Effect of Morus bombycis Root Extract: Anti-Lipase Activity and Lipolytic Effect. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 130, 621-624.
[16] Mancini, M.C. and Halpern, A. (2006) Investigational Therapies in the Treatment of Obesity. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, 15, 897-915.
[17] Shi, Y. and Burn, P. (2004) Lipid Metabolic Enzymes: Emerging Drug Targets for the Treatment of Obesity. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 3, 695-710.
[18] Sharma, N., Sharma, V.K. and Seo, S.Y. (2005) Screening of Some Medicinal Plants for Anti-Lipase Activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 97, 453-456.
[19] Slanc, P., Doljak, B., Kreft, S., Lunder, M., Janes, D. and Strukelj, B. (2009) Screening of Selected Food and Medicinal Plant Extracts for Pancreatic Lipase Inhibition. Phytotheraphy Research, 23, 874-877.
[20] Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R. and Lamuela-Raventos, R.M. (1999) Analysis of Total Phenols and Other Oxidation Substrates and Antioxidants by Means of Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent. Methods in Enzymology, 29, 152-178.
[21] Chang, C., Yang, M., Wen, H. and Chern, J. (2002) Estimation of Total Flavonoid Content in Propolis by Two Complementary Colorimetric Methods. Journal of Food Drug Analysis, 10, 178-182.
[22] Yu, L., Haley, S., Perret, J., Harris, M., Wilson, J. and Haley, S. (2003) Antioxidant Properties of Bran Extracts from Akron Wheat Grown at Different Locations. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 1566-1570.
[23] Oyaizu, M. (1986) Studies on the Products of Browning Reaction Prepared from Glucose Amine. Japanese Journal of Nutrition, 44, 307-315.
[24] Dai, J. and Mumper, R.J. (2010) Plant Phenolics: Extraction, Analysis and Their Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties. Molecules, 15, 7313-7352.
[25] Zhou, K. and Yu, L. (2004) Effects of Extraction Solvent on Wheat Bran Antioxidant Activity Estimation. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 37, 717-721.
[26] Plumb, G.W., Price, K.R., Rhodes, M.J.C. and Williamson, G. (1997) Antioxidant Properties of the Major Polyphenolic Compounds in Broccoli. Free Radical Research, 27, 429-435.
[27] Podsedek, A. (2007) Natural Antioxidants and Antioxidant Capacity of Brassica Vegetables: A Review. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 40, 1-11.
[28] Cartea, M.E., Francisco, M., Soengas, P. and Velasco, P. (2011) Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables. Molecules, 16, 251-280.
[29] Alothman, M., Rajeev, B. and Karim, A.A. (2009) Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Selected Tropical Fruits from Malaysia, Extracted with Different Solvents. Food Chemistry, 115, 785-788.
[30] Naczk, M. and Shaidi, F. (2006) Phenolic in Cereals, Fruit and Vegetables: Occurrence, Extraction and Analysis. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 41, 1523-1542.
[31] Tomsone, L., Kruma, Z. and Galoburda, R. (2012) Comparison of Different Solvents and Extraction Methods for Isolation of Phenolic Compounds from Horseradish Roots (Armoracia rusticana). World Academy Science Engineering Technology, 64, 903-908.
[32] Younes, M. (1981) Inhibitory Action of Some Flavonoids on Enhanced Spontaneous Lipid Peroxidation Following Glutathione Depletion. Planta Medica, 43, 240-245.
[33] Cook, N.C. and Samman, S. (1996) Flavonoids-Chemistry, Metabolism, Cardioprotective Effects, and Dietary Sources. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 7, 66-76.
[34] Boots, A.W., Haenen, G.R.M.M. and Bast, A. (2008) Health Effects of Quercetin: From Antioxidant to Nutraceutical. European Journal of Pharmacology, 585, 325-337.
[35] Berker, K.I., Olgun, F.A.O., Ozyurt, D., Demirata, B. and Apak, R. (2013) Modified Folin-Ciocalteu Antioxidant Capacity Assay for Measuring Lipophilic Antioxidants. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61, 4783-4791.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.