F1 Offspring of (F0) Female Rats Fed a High-Saturated Fat, Prenatal/Lactation Diet Remain Insulin Resistant Despite Postnatal Diet Rich in Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids


Prior research has shown adult diets rich in omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 LC-PUFAs) can improve adult metabolic health. Previous studies have also shown maternal overnutrition during pregnancy/lactation adversely affects metabolic functioning in adult offspring. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the interaction of these two metabolism regulating factors by assessing the effectiveness of a postweaning diet rich in omega-3 long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 LC-PUFAs) to improve metabolic function in adult offspring whose mothers were fed a high-saturated fat “Western” diet during pregnancy/lactation. We compared metabolic function between offspring of three prenatal-lactation/postweaning diet lines of Sprague-Dawley rats: 1) offspring of mothers fed a high-saturated fat “Western” diet during pregnancy-lactation, then weaned to a high omega-3 LC-PUFA diet (Western/PUFA); 2) offspring of mothers fed a control diet during pregnancy-lactation, then weaned to a high omega-3 LC-PUFA diet (Control/PUFA); and 3) offspring of mothers fed a Western diet during pregnancylactation, and postweaning (Western/Western). Fasting plasma insulin, triglycerides, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) of Western/PUFA animals were intermediate to those of Western/Western and Control/PUFA offspring, although these differences did not reach statistical significance. This suggests the metabolic benefits of an omega-3 LC-PUFA-rich diet are insufficient to overcome the deleterious effects of a high-saturated fat prenatal-lactation diet.

Share and Cite:

Kachinski, J. , Jin, H. and Benyshek, D. (2014) F1 Offspring of (F0) Female Rats Fed a High-Saturated Fat, Prenatal/Lactation Diet Remain Insulin Resistant Despite Postnatal Diet Rich in Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids. Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, 4, 258-264. doi: 10.4236/ojemd.2014.412027.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Nettleson, J.A. and Katz, R. (2005) N-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Type 2 Diabetes: A Review. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 105, 428-440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2004.11.029
[2] Jimenez-Gomez, Y., Cruz-Teno, C., Rangel-Zuniga, O.A., Peinado, J.R., Perez-Martinez, P., Delgado-Lista, J., Garcia-Rios, A., Camargo, A., Vazquez-Martinez, R., Ortega-Bellido, M., Perez-Jimenez, F., Roche, H.M., Malagon, M.M. and Lopez-Miranda, J. (2014) Effect of Dietary Fat Modification on Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue Insulin Sensitivity in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 58, 2177-2188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201300901
[3] Paniagua, J.A., Pérez-Martinez, P., Gjelstad, I.M., Tierney, A.C., Delgado-Lista, J., Defoort, C., Blaak, E.E., Risacrus, U., Drevon, C.A., Kiec-Wilk, B., Lovegrove, J.A., Roche, H.M. and López-Miranda, J. (2011) A Low-Fat High-Carbo- hydrate Diet Supplemented with Long-Chain n-3 PUFA Reduces the Risk of the Metabolic Syndrome. Atherosclerosis, 218, 443-450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.07.003
[4] Liu, H.Q., Qiu, Y., Mu, Y., Zhang, X.J., Liu, L., Hou, X.H., Zhang, L., Xu, X.N., Ji, A.L., Cao, R., Yang, R.H. and Wang, F. (2013) A High Ratio of Dietary n-3/n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Improves Obesity-Linked Inflammation and Insulin Resistance through Suppressing Activation of TLR4 in SD Rats. Nutrition Research, 33, 849-858. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2013.07.004
[5] Fickova, M., Hubert, P., Crémel, G. and Leray, C. (1998) Dietary (n-3) and (n-6) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Rapidly Modify Fatty Acid Composition and Insulin Effects in Rat Adipocytes. The Journal of Nutrition, 128, 512-519.
[6] Luo, J., Rizkalla, S.W., Boillot, J., Alamowitch, C., Chaib, H., Bruzzo, F., Desplanque, N., Daliz, A.M., Georges Durand, G. and Slama, G. (1996) Dietary (n-3) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Improve Adipocyte Insulin Action and Glucose Metabolism in Insulin-Resistant Rats: Relation to Membrane Fatty Acids. The Journal of Nutrition, 126, 1951-1958.
[7] Peyron-Caso, E., Fluteau-Nadler, S., Kabir, M., Guerre-Millo, M., Quignard-Boulange, A., Slama, G. and Rizkalla, S.W. (2002) Regulation of Glucose Transport and Transporter 4 (GLUT-4) in Muscle and Adipocytes of Sucrose-Fed Rats: Effects of N-3 Poly- and Monounsaturated Fatty Acids. Hormone and Metabolic Research, 34, 360-366. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2002-33467
[8] Benyshek, D.C. (2007) The Developmental Origins of Obesity and Related Health Disorders: Prenatal and Perinatal Factors. Collegium Antropologicum, 31, 11-17.
[9] Popkin, B.M. (2006) Global Nutrition Dynamics: The World Is Shifting Rapidly toward a Diet Linked with Noncommunicable Diseases. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84, 289-298.
[10] Liang, C.Y., Oest, M.E. and Prater, M.R. (2009) Intrauterine Exposure to High Saturated Fat Diet Elevates Risk of Adult-Onset Chronic Diseases in C57BL/6 Mice. Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology, 86, 377-384. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdrb.20206
[11] Khan, I.Y., Taylor, P.D., Dekou, V., Seed, P.T., Lakasing, L., Graham, D., Dominiczak, A.F., Hanson, M.A. and Poston, L. (2003) Gender-Linked Hypertension in Offspring of Lard-Fed Pregnant Rats. Hypertension, 41, 168-175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.0000047511.97879.FC

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.