F0 Prenatal/Lactation Diets Varying in Saturated Fat and Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Alters the Insulin Sensitivity of F1 Rats Fed a High Fat Western Diet Post-weaning


Previous research has shown that prenatal diets rich in specific nutrients (e.g. taurine, omega-3 fatty acids) may provide protective cardiometabolic effects for adult offspring. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the potential of a prenatal-lactation diet rich in omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 LC PUFAs) to improve metabolic function in offspring fed a high saturated fat “Western” diet postweaning. We compared growth and metabolic biomarkers of three groups of Sprague Dawley rat offspring all weaned to a high saturated fat “Western” (Western) diet, but whose mothers were fed one of three different diets during pregnancy-lactation: 1) omega-3 “PUFA”-rich (PUFA/Western); 2) control (Control/Western); and 3) high saturated fat “Western” (Western/Western). PUFA/Western offspring had significantly lower fasting insulin (P < 0.01) and HOMA-IR (P < 0.01), and lower mean plasma triglycerides than Western/ Western animals. Additionally, mean HOMA-IR, fasting plasma insulin, and triglycerides were 19%, 10% and 14% lower, respectively, than those of Control/Western animals, although these differences were not statistically significant. Western/Western adult offspring had the highest fasting plasma insulin, triglycerides, and insulin-resistance (HOMA-IR) of the three groups. Our results indicated that a maternal omega-3 PUFA-rich diet during pregnancy-lactation may provide modest protective metabolic effects for adult offspring, even when consuming a high energy and saturated fat diet.

Share and Cite:

Benyshek, D. , Kachinski, J. and Jin, H. (2014) F0 Prenatal/Lactation Diets Varying in Saturated Fat and Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Alters the Insulin Sensitivity of F1 Rats Fed a High Fat Western Diet Post-weaning. Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, 4, 245-252. doi: 10.4236/ojemd.2014.412025.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Benyshek, D.C. (2007) The Developmental Origins of Obesity and Related Health Disorders—Prenatal and Perinatal Factors. Collegium Antropologicum, 31, 11-17.
[2] Sie, K.K., Medline, A., Van Weel, J., Sohn, K.J., Choi, S.W., Croxford, R. and Kim, Y.I. (2011) Effect of Maternal and Postweaning Folic Acid Supplementation on Colorectal Cancer Risk in the Offspring. Gut, 60, 1687-1694. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.2011.238782
[3] Mirzaei, F., Michels, K.B., Munger, K., O’Reilly, E., Chitnis, T., Forman, M.R., Giovannucci, E., Rosner, B. and Ascherio, A. (2011) Gestational vitamin D and the risk of multiple sclerosis in offspring. Annals of Neurology, 70, 30-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.22456
[4] Li, M.L., Reynolds, C.M., Sloboda, D.M., Gray, C. and Vickers, M.H. (2013) Effects of Taurine Supplementation on Hepatic Markers of Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism in Mothers and Offspring in the Setting of Maternal Obesity. PLoS ONE, 8, e76961. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1371/journal.pone.0076961
[5] Mortensen, O.H., Olsen, H.L., Frandsen, L., Nielsen, P.E., Nielsen, F.C., Grunnet, N. and Quistorff, B. (2010) A Maternal Low Protein Diet Has Pronounced Effects on Mitochondrial Gene Expression in Offspring Liver and Skeletal Muscle; Protective Effect of Taurine. Journal of Biomedical Science, 17, S38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1423-0127-17-S1-S38
[6] Nettleson, J.A. and Katz, R. (2005) N-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Type 2 Diabetes: A Review. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 105, 428-440. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.jada.2004.11.029
[7] Liu, H.Q., Qiu, Y., Mu, Y., Zhang, X.J., Liu, L., Hou, X.H., Zhang, L., Xu, X.N., Ji, A.L., Cao, R., Yang, R.H. and Wang, F. (2013) A High Ratio of Dietary n-3/n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Improves Obesity-Linked Inflammation and Insulin Resistance through Suppressing Activation of TLR4 in SD Rats. Nutrition Research, 33, 849-858. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2013.07.004
[8] Jimenez-Gomez, Y., Cruz-Teno, C., Rangel-Zuniga, O.A., Peinado, J.R., Perez-Martinez, P., Delgado-Lista, J., Garcia-Rios, A., Camargo, A., Vazquez-Martinez, R., Ortega-Bellido, M., Perez-Jimenez, F., Roche, H.M., Malagon, M.M. and Lopez-Miranda, J. (2014) Effect of Dietary Fat Modification on Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue Insulin Sensitivity in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 58, 2177-2188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201300901
[9] Paniagua, J.A., Paurez-Martinez, P., Gjelstad, I.M., Tierney, A.C., Delgado-Lista, J., Defoort, C., Blaak, E.E., Risérus, U., Drevon, C.A., Kiec-Wilk, B., Lovegrove, J.A., Roche, H.M. and Lapez-Miranda, J. (2011) A Low-Fat High-Carbo-hydrate Diet Supplemented with Long-Chain n-3 PUFA Reduces the Risk of the Metabolic Syndrome. Atherosclerosis, 218, 443-450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.atherosclerosis.2011.07.003
[10] Korotkova, M., Gabrielsson, B., Hanson, L.A. and Strandvik, B. (2001) Maternal Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency Depresses Serum Leptin Levels in Suckling Rat Pups. Journal of Lipid Research, 42, 359-365.
[11] Korotkova, M., Gabrielsson, B., Lonn, M., Hanson, L.A. and Strandvik, B. (2002) Leptin Levels in Rat Offspring Are Modified by the Ratio of Linoleic to Alpha-Linolenic Acid in the Maternal Diet. The Journal of Lipid Research, 43, 1743-1749. http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M200105-JLR200
[12] Korotkova, M., Gabrielsson, B., Hanson, L.A. and Strandvik, B. (2002) Maternal Dietary Intake of Essential Fatty Acids Affects Adipose Tissue Growth and Leptin mRNA Expression in Suckling Rat Pups. Pediatric Research, 52, 78-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1203/00006450-200207000-00015
[13] Korotkova, M., Ohlsson, C., Hanson, L.A. and Strandvik, B. (2004) Dietary n-6:n-3 Fatty Acid Ratio in the Perinatal Period Affects Bone Parameters in Adult Female Rats. British Journal of Nutrition, 92, 643-648. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/BJN20041252
[14] Korotkova, M., Gabrielsson, B.G., Holmang, A., Larsson, B.M., Hanson, L.A. and Strandvik, B. (2005) Gender-Re-lated Long-Term Effects in Adult Rats by Perinatal Dietary Ratio of n-6/n-3 Fatty Acids. American Journal of Physiology, 288, R575-R579. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00342.2004
[15] Sardinha, F.L., Fernandes, F.S., Tavares do Carmo, M.G. and Herrera, E. (2013) Sex-Dependent Nutritional Programming: Fish Oil Intake During Early Pregnancy in Rats Reduces Age-Dependent Insulin Resistance in Male, but Not Female, Offspring. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 304, R313-R320.
[16] Bersamin, A., Luick, B.R., Ruppert, E., Stern, J.S. and Zidenberg-Cherr, S. (2006) Diet Quality among Yup’ik Eskimos Living in Rural Communities Is Low: The Center for Alaska Native Health Research Pilot Study. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 106, 1055-1063. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2006.04.026
[17] Popkin, B.M. (2006) Global Nutrition Dynamics: The World Is Shifting Rapidly toward a Diet Linked with Noncommunicable Diseases. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84, 289-298.
[18] Mohatt, G.V., Plaetke, R., Klejka, J., Luick, B., Lardon, C., Bersamin, A., et al. (2007) The Center for Alaska Native Health Research Study: A Community-Based Participatory Research Study of Obesity and Chronic Disease-Related Protective and Risk Factors. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 66, 8-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/ijch.v66i1.18219
[19] Gohdes, D., Kaufman, S. and Valway, S. (1993) Diabetes in American Indians: An Overview. Diabetes Care, 16, 239-243. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.16.1.239
[20] Conti, K.M. (2006) Diabetes Prevention in Indian Country: Developing Nutrition Models to Tell the Story of Food-System Change. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 17, 234-245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1043659606288380
[21] Adler, A.I., Schraer, C.D., Boyko, E.J. and Murphy, N.J. (1994) Lower Prevalence of Impaired Glucose Intolerance and Diabetes Associated with Daily Seal Oil or Salmon Consumption among Alaska Natives. Diabetes Care, 17, 1498-1501. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.17.12.1498
[22] Schraer, C.D., Risica, P.M., Ebbesson, S.O., Go, O.T., Howard, B.V. and Mayer, A.M. (1999) Low Fasting Insulin Levels in Eskimos Compared to American Indians: Are Eskimos Less Insulin Resistant? International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 58, 272-281.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.