Synthesis of CaO-SiO2 Compounds Using Materials Extracted from Industrial Wastes


Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cement is an attractive material in endodontic dentistry. The purpose of this study was to produce calcium silicate, which is a major component of MTA, from waste materials. A dental alginate impression gel and used chalks were selected and mixed in a suitable ratio (Code: EXP). As a control, CaCO3 and a commercial diatomite were used (Code: CON). Each powder was heated to 850C and 1000C, and then kneaded with water. TG-DTA, compressive tests, SEM observations, elemental mapping analyses, and XRD analyses were performed. TG-DTA indicated that weight reduction of CaCO3 started at 600C, and it completely decomposed on heating at 850C. The strength was affected by the temperature. After heating, CaCO3 was transformed into CaO and/or Ca2SiO4, and Ca(OH)2 was formed by mixing with water. There were no differences between EXP and CON. These data suggested that recycled wastes might be promising MTA sources.

Share and Cite:

Yamaguchi, N. , Masuda, Y. , Yamada, Y. , Narusawa, H. , Han-Cheol, C. , Tamaki, Y. and Miyazaki, T. (2015) Synthesis of CaO-SiO2 Compounds Using Materials Extracted from Industrial Wastes. Open Journal of Inorganic Non-metallic Materials, 5, 1-10. doi: 10.4236/ojinm.2015.51001.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Aida, Y., Zhang, Z., Yagi, S. and Tamaki, Y. (2009) Experimental Critobalite Investments with Reused Glass Powder as Binder Materials Are Available for Reuse of Casting. Dental Medicine Research, 29, 139-147.
[2] Zhang, Z., Tamaki, Y., Hotta, Y., Miyazaki, T. (2005) Recycling of Used Commercial Phosphate-Bonded Investments with Additional Mono-Ammonium Phosphate. Dental Materials Journal, 24, 14-18.
[3] Yagi, S., Zhang, Z., Aida, Y., Hotta, Y., Tamaki, Y. and Miyazaki, T. (2011) Soda-Lime Glass as a Binder in Reusable Experimental Investment for Dental Castings. Dental Materials Journal, 30, 611-615.
[4] Vichi, A., Louca, C., Corciolani, G. and Ferrari, M. (2011) Color Related to Ceramic and Zirconia Restorations: A Review. Dental Materials, 27, 97-108.
[5] Bottino, M.A., Salazar-Marocho, S.M., Leite, F.P., Vásquez, V.C. and Valandro, L.F. (2009) Flexural Strength of Glass-Infiltrated Zirconia/Alumina-Based Ceramics and Feldspathic Veneering Porcelains. Journal of Prosthodontics, 18, 417- 420.
[6] Miyazaki, T. and Hotta, Y. (2011) CAD/CAM Systems Available for the Fabrication of Crown and Bridge Restorations. Australian Dental Journal, 56, 97-106.
[7] Aeinehchi, M., Eslami, B., Ghanbariha, M. and Saffar, A.S. (2003) Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Calcium Hydroxide as Pulp-Capping Agents in Human Teeth: A Preliminary Report. International Endodontic Journal, 36, 225-231.
[8] Dammaschke, T., Gerth, H.U.V., Zuchner, H. and Schafer, E. (2005) Chemical and Physical Surface and Bulk Material Characterization of White ProRoot MTA and Two Portland Cements. Dental Materials, 21, 731-738.
[9] Darvell, B.W. and Wu, R.C.T. (2011) “MTA”—An Hydraulic Silicate Cement: Review Update and Setting Reaction. Dental Materials, 27, 407-422.
[10] Han, L. and Okiji, T. (2011) Uptake of Calcium and Silicon Released from Calcium Silicate-Based Endodontic Materials into Root Canal Dentine. International Endodontic Journal, 44, 1081-1087.
[11] Chiang, T.Y. and Ding, S.J. (2010) Comparative Physicochemical and Biocompatible Properties of Radiopaque Dicalcium Silicate Cement and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate. Journal of Endodontics, 36, 1683-1687.
[12] Liu, X., Morra, M., Carpi, A. and Li, B. (2008) Bioactive Calcium Silicate Ceramics and Coatings. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 62, 526-529.
[13] Gandolfia, M.G., Ciapettib, G., Taddeic, P., Perutb, F., Tinti, A., Cardosod, M.V., Meerbeek, B.V. and Prati, C. (2010) Apatite Formation on Bioactive Calcium-Silicate Cements for Dentistry Affects Surface Topography and Human Marrow Stromal Cells Proliferation. Dental Materials, 26, 974-992.
[14] Liu, W.-N., Chang, J., Zhu, Y.-Q. and Zhang M. (2011) Effect of Tricalcium Aluminate on the Properties of Tricalcium Silicate-Tricalcium Aluminate Mixtures: Setting Time, Mechanical Strength and Biocompatibility. International Endodontic Journal, 44, 41-50.
[15] Camilleri, J. (2011) Characterization and Hydration Kinetics of Tricalcium Silicate Cement for Use a Dental Biomaterial. Dental Materials, 27, 836-844.
[16] Marao, H.F., Panzarini, S.R., Aranega, A.M., Sonoda, C.K., Poi, W.R., Esteves, J.C. and Silva, P.I.S. (2012) Periapical Tissue Reactions to Calcium Hydroxide and MTA after External Root Resorption as a Sequera of Delayed Tooth Replantation. Dental Traumatology, 28, 306-313.
[17] Pelisser, F., Steiner, L.R. and Bernardin, A.M. (2012) Recycling of Porcelain Tile Polishing Residue in Portland Cement. Environmental Science & Technology, 21, 2368-2374.
[18] Phillips, R.W. (1991) Skinner’s Science of Dental Materials, Chapter 8 Elastic Impression Materials: Alginate. 9th Edition, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 123-133.
[19] Matsuya, S. and Yamane, M. (1981) Decomposition of Gypsum Bonded Investments. Journal of Dental Research, 60, 1418-1423.
[20] Rodríguez, N., Alonso, M., Grasa, G. and Abanades, J.C. (2008) Process for Capturing CO2 Arising from the Calcination of the CaCO3 Used in Cement Manufacture. Environmental Science & Technology, 42, 6980-6984.
[21] Reisbick, M.H. and Brantley, W.A. (1995) Mechanical Property and Microstructural Variations for Recast Low-Gold Alloy. Journal of Prosthodontics, 8, 346-350.
[22] Isaac, L., Joseph, M., Bhat, S. and Shetty, P. (2000) Stress Variations in Recast Ni-Cr alloy—A Finite Element Analysis. Indian Journal of Dental Research, 11, 27-32.
[23] Yilmaz, B., Ozcelik, T.B., Johnston, W.M., Kurtulmus-Yilmaz, S. and Company, A.M. (2012) Effect of Alloy Recasting on the Color of Opaque Porcelain Applied on Different Dental Alloy Systems. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 108, 362-369.
[24] Ibrahim, R.M., Seniour, S.H. and Sheehab, G.I. (1995) Recycling of Calcium Sulphatedihydrate. Egyptian Dental Journal, 41, 1253-1256.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.