Analysis of Staffing and Training Needs for Effective Delivery of Extension Service in Sustainable Land Management in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania


An assessment of staffing and training needs for effective delivery of extension services in mainstreaming sustainable land management (SLM) practices in Kilimanjaro Region was conducted in June/July 2013. Data collection methods included discussions with key informants at the regional and district levels, consultations with village level stakeholders and potential collaborators, review of human resources data both at regional, district and ward levels and collection of individual staff bio-data including capacity deficiencies. The staffing situation at the regional and district levels was considered to be adequate for effective mainstreaming of SLM interventions in the region. Staffing at ward and village levels was very poor and largely inadequate for sustainable execution of extension services. It is optimistically estimated that on average the staffing at ward level needs to be increased by at least 50%. In some districts the deficiency of extension staff at ward level was as high as 80%. Training needs exist at all levels from the region down to community level. At the regional and district levels both long and short term training programs were required. At the community level required training is more practical and purely focused in mainstreaming SLM interventions at individual households and community lands. Potential collaborators with local government were identified in four main categories namely, NGOs/CBOs, private sector, government departments and faith-based organizations. The study recommends a capacity building program on specific knowledge gaps identified at regional, district, ward and village levels. The study further recommends that immediate measures need to be taken by the district authorities to address the staffing problem at ward level including recruitment of volunteers and developing collaboration framework with identified potential partners.

Share and Cite:

Kessy, J. (2014) Analysis of Staffing and Training Needs for Effective Delivery of Extension Service in Sustainable Land Management in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. Open Journal of Soil Science, 4, 459-468. doi: 10.4236/ojss.2014.413045.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Kessy, J.F., Oktingati, A. and Solberg, B. (1993) The Economics of Rehabilitating Denuded Areas in Tanzania: The Case of Legho Mulo Moshi. Faculty of Forestry Record No. 60, Sokoine University of Agriculture.
[2] Kessy, J.F. and Oktingati, A. (1994) An Analysis of Some Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Farmer’s Involvement in Agroforestry Extension Projects in Tanzania. Annals of Forestry, 2, 26-32.
[3] Oktingàti, A. and Kessy, J.F. (1991) The Farming Systems on Mount Kilimanjaro. In: Newmark, W.D., Ed., Conservation of Mount Kilimanjaro, Chapter 8, IUCN, Gland.
[4] Flora, K., Mashindano, O., Rweyemam, D. and Charles, P. (2011) Poverty Escape Routes in Central Tanzania: Copping Strategies in Singida and Dodoma Regions. Volume III, The Economic and Social Research Foundation (ESRF), Dar es Salaam.
[5] Kessy, J.F. (1998) Conservation and Utilization of Natural Resources in the East Usambara Forest Reserves: Conventional Views and Local Perspectives. Tropical Forest Management Papers No. 18, Wageningen.
[6] UNDP (2007) Capacity Assessment Methodology. Users Guide, Capacity Development Group, Bureau for Development Policy, UNDP.
[7] Wignaraja, K. (2009) Capacity Development: A UNDP Primer. UNDP, USA.
[8] Miller, J.A. and Osinski, D.M. (2002) Training Needs Assessment.
[9] Chris, B., Sparrow, P., Vernon, G. and Houldsworth, E. (2011) International Human Resources Management. 3rd Edition, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, London.
[10] Itika, J. (2011) Fundamentals of Human Resources Management: Emerging Experiences from Africa. African Public Administration and Management Series, Vol. 2, African Studies Centre, Leiden.
[11] Robert, L. and Hendon, J. (2012) Human Resources Management: Functions, Applications, Skill Development. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.