Microsatellite Analysis of Panax ginseng Natural Populations in Russia


Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is an endangered species in Russia. To restore this species, effective protective measures, including the reintroduction into favorable habitats, must be worked out considering the specificity of genetic structure of ginseng populations. One hundred and thirty-nine P. ginseng plants were collected from the forests of nine administrative areas of Primorsky Territory of Russia and transferred to a collection nursery for further investigation. Microsatellite markers were used to study the genetic diversity and the genetic structure of ginseng populations. For populations studied with SSR, the number of observed alleles was ranging from 15 to 25, allelic richness from 1.83 to 3.04, polymorphic loci from 62.5% to 87.7%, observed heterozygosity from 0.410 to 0.512 (an average of 0.453) and expected heterozygosity from 0.304 to 0.479, with an average of 0.393. The values of the inbreeding coefficient within populations (Fis) ranged from -0.447 to 0.056, and their average value was -0.296. Genetic differentiation among populations was significant (Fst = 0.115) but an isolation-by-distance pattern was not detected. UPGMA and MS-tree confirmed the presence of genetic structure within P. ginseng and visualized genetic relationships of populations with similar pattern. STRUCTURE analysis revealed the genetic admixture between different ginseng populations. It was established with SSR markers that P. ginseng still preserves substantial genetic resources although all populations are largely exhausted. Because ginseng populations are significantly differentiated all of them should be restored. Considering the admixture of ginseng populations it would be advisable to apply the individual assignment test to verify the content of indigenous populations and to identify the "true" population plants to serve as stock material for reintroduction.

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Reunova, G. , Koren, O. , Muzarok, T. and Zhuravlev, Y. (2014) Microsatellite Analysis of Panax ginseng Natural Populations in Russia. Chinese Medicine, 5, 231-243. doi: 10.4236/cm.2014.54028.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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