Petroleum Products in Soil Mediated Oxidative Stress in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and Maize (Zea mays) Seedlings


The effects of petroleum products (kerosene, diesel, engine oil and petrol) treatment of soil at various sublethal concentrations (0.0%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%) on oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity and xanthine oxidase) were studied in cowpea and maize seedlings. The results indicated that the petroleum products caused a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and a significant decrease in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes: Superoxide dismutase, catalase and xanthine oxidase activities. Kerosene had a greater effect on these indicators of oxidative stress than did the other petroleum products. The effects on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were more pronounced in cowpeas seedlings than in maize seedlings.

Share and Cite:

Achuba, F. (2014) Petroleum Products in Soil Mediated Oxidative Stress in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and Maize (Zea mays) Seedlings. Open Journal of Soil Science, 4, 417-435. doi: 10.4236/ojss.2014.412042.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Mittler, R. (2002) Oxidative Stress, Antioxidants and Stress Tolerance. Trends in Plant Science, 7, 405-410.
[2] Elstner, E.F. (1991) Mechanisms of Oxygen Activation in Different Compartments of Plant Cells. In: Pell, E.J. and Steffen, K.L., Eds., Active Oxygen/Oxidative Stress and Plant Metabolism, American Society of Plant Physiologists, Rockville, 13-25.
[3] Voet, D. and Voet, J.G. (1995) Biochemistry. 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 816-820.
[4] Rich, P.R. and Bonner Jr., W.D. (1978) The Site of Superoxide Anion Generation in Higher Plant Mitochondria. Archive of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 188, 206-213.
[5] Achuba, F.I. and Osakwe, S.A. (2003) Petroleum Induced Free Radical Toxicity in African Catfish (Clarias garieponus). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 29, 97-103.
[6] Anozie, O.I. and Onwurah, I.N. (2001) Toxic Effect of Bonny Light Crude Oil in Rat after Ingestion of Contaminated Diet. Nigerian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Proceeding Supplement), 16, 1035-1085.
[7] Downs, C.A., Shigenska, G., Fauth, J.E., Robinson, C.E. and Huang, A. (2002) Cellular Physiological Assessment of Bivalves after Chronic Exposure to Spolled Exon Valdes Crude Oil Using a Novel Molecular Diagnostic Biotechnology. Environmental Science and Technology, 36, 2987-2993.
[8] Achuba, F.I., Peretiomo-Clarke, B.O. and Ebokaiwe, P. (2005) Pollution Induced Oxidative Stress in African Catfish (Clarias heterobranchus). European Journal of Scientific Research, 8, 52-73.
[9] Aksnes, A. and Njaa, R.L. (1981) Catalase, Glutathione Peroxidase and Superoxide Dismutase in Different Fish Species. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 69B, 893-896.
[10] Misra, H.P. and Fridovich, I. (1972) The Role of Superoxide in the Auto-Oxidation of Epinephrine and a Simple Assay for Superoxide Dismutase. Biochemical Journal, 247, 3170-3175.
[11] Crapo, J.D., McCord, J.M. and Fridovich, I. (1978) Preparation and Assay of Superoxide Dismutases. Methods in Enzymology, 53, 382-393.
[12] Rani, P., Meena Unni, K. and Karthikeyan, J. (2004) Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties of Berries. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 19, 103-110.
[13] Heath, R.L. and Packer, L. (1968) Photoperoxidation in Isolated Chloroplasts. I. Kinetics and Stoichiometry of Farry Acid Peroxidation. Archives Biochemistry and Biophysics, 125, 189-198.
[14] Srivastava, M., Lena, Q.M., Singh, N. and Singh, S. (2005) Antioxidant Responses of Hyper-Accumulator and Sensitive Fern Species to Arsenic. Experimental Botany, 56, 1335-1342.
[15] Hartley-Whitaker, J., Ainsworth, G. and Mehary, A.A. (2001) Copper and Arsenate-Induced Oxidative Stress in Hocus lanatus L. Clones with Differential Sensitivity. Plant Cell and Environment, 24, 713-722.
[16] Somashekaraiah, B.V., Padmaja, K. and Prasad, A.R.K. (1992) Phytotoxicity of Cadmium Ions on Germinating Seedlings of Mung Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): Involvement of Lipid Peroxides in Chlorophyll Degradation. Physiologia Plantarum, 85, 85-89.
[17] Gallego, S.M., Benavides, M.P. and Tomaro, M.L. (1996) Effect of Heavy Metal Ion Excess on Sunflower Leaves: Evidence for Involvement of Oxidative Stress. Plant Science, 121, 151-159.
[18] Lozano-Rodriguez, E. Hernandez, C.E., Bonay, P. and Carpena-Ruiz, R.O. (1997) Distribution of Cadmium in Shoots and Root Tissues of Maize and Pea Plants: Physiological Disturbances. Journal of Experimental Botany, 48, 123-128.
[19] Frei, B. (1994) Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidant Vitamins: Mechanism of Action. American Journal of Medicine, 97, S5-S13.
[20] Val, A.L. and Almeida-Val, V.F. (1999) Effects of Crude Oil on Respiratory Aspect of Some Fish Species of the Amazon. In: Val., A.L. and Almerda-Val, V.M.F., Eds., Biology of Tropical Fish, INPA, Manaus, 227-291.
[21] Yu, Q. and Rengel, Z. (1999) Micronutrient Deficiency Influences Plant Growth and Activities of Superoxide Dismutase in Narrow Leafed Lupins. Annals of Botany, 8, 175-182.
[22] Halliwell, B. (1989) Oxidants and the Central Nervous System: Some Fundamental Questions. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 126, 23-33.
[23] Halliwell, B. and Gutteridge, J.M.C. (1990) The Antioxidant of Human Extra Cellular Fluids. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 280, 1-8.
[24] Liu, J. and Mori, A. (1994) Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species in Emotional Stress: A Hypothesis Based on the Immobilization Stress Induced Oxidative Damage and Antioxidant Defense Changes in Rat Brain and the Effect of Antioxidant Treatment with Reduced Glutathione. International Journal of Stress Management, 1, 249-263.
[25] Achuba, F.I. (2010) Spent Engine Oil Mediated Oxidative Stress in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Seedlings. Electronic Journal of Environment, Food and Agricultural Chemistry, 9, 910-917.
[26] Gutteridge, M.C. (1995) Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidants as Biomarker of Tissue Damage. Clinical Chemistry, 41, 1819-1828.
[27] Hammond-Kosack, K.E. and Jones, J.D.G. (1996) Resistance Gene-Dependent Plant Defense Responses. The Plant Cell Online, 8, 1773-1791.
[28] Orozo-Cardenase, M. and Ryan, C.A. (1999) Hydrogen Peroxide Is Generated Systematically in Plant Leaves by Wounding and Systemin via the Octadecanoid Pathway. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96, 6553-6557.
[29] Cazale, A.C., Droillard, M.J., Wilson, C., Heberle-Bors, E., Barbier-Brygoo, H. and Lauriere, C. (1999) MAP Kinase Activation by Hypoosmotic Stress of Tobacco Cell Suspensions: Towards the Oxidative Burst Response? Plant Journal, 19, 297-307.
[30] Pei, Z.M., Murata, Y., Benning, G., Thomine, S., Klüsener, B., Allen, G.J., Grill, E. and Schroeder, J.I. (2000) Calcium Channels Activated by Hydrogen Peroxide Mediate Abscisic Acid Signalling in Guard Cells. Nature, 406, 731-734.
[31] Asada, K. and Takahashi, M. (1987) Production and Scavenging of Active Oxygen in Chloroplasts. In: Kyle, D.J., Osmond, C.B. and Arntzen, C.J., Eds., Photoinhibition, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 227-287.
[32] Bowler, C., Van Montague, M. and Inze, D. (1994) Superoxide Dismutase in Plants. Critical Review of Plant Science, 13, 199-218.
[33] Jayakumar, K., Jaleel, A.C. and Viayarengan, P. (2007) Changes in Growth, Biochemical Constituents and Antioxidant Potentials in Radish (Raphasus sativus L.) under Cobalt Stress. Turkish Journal of Biology, 31, 127-136.
[34] Fridovich, I. (1986) Biological Effects of Superoxide Radical. Archive of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 247, 1-11.
[35] Sevenian, A. and Hochistein, P. (1985) Mechanism and Consequences of Lipid Peroxidation in Biological Systems. Annual Review of Nutrition, 5, 365-390.
[36] Stern, A. (1985) Red Cell Oxidative Damage. In: Sies, H., Ed., Oxidative Stress, Academic Press, New York, 331-349.
[37] Parke, V.O. (1987) Role of Enzymes in Protection against Lipid Peroxidation. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 7, 222-235.
[38] Saltman, P. (1989) Oxidative Stress: A Radical View. Seminar in Hematology, 26, 249-256.
[39] Smirnoff, N. (1993) The Role of Active Oxygen in the Response of Plants to Water Deficit and Desiccation. New Phytologist, 125, 27-58.
[40] Ayotarmuno, J.M. and Kogbara, R.B. (2007) Determining the Tolerance Level of Zea mays (Maize) to Crude Oil Polluted Agricultural Soil. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6, 1332-1337.
[41] Aboaba, O.A., Aboaba, O.O., Nwachuku, N.C., Chukwu, E.E. and Nwachukwu, S.C.U. (2007) Evaluation of Bioremediation of Agricultural Soils Polluted with Crude Oil by Planting Beans Seeds, Phaseolus vulgaris. Nature and Science, 5, 53-60.
[42] Baek, K., Kom, H., Oh, H., Young, B., Kim, J. and Lea, I. (2004) Effect of Crude Oil Components and Bioremediation on Plant Growth. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, A39, 2465-2477.
[43] Albert, P.H. (1995) Petroleum and Individual Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. In: Hoffman, D.J., Rattner, B.A., Burton Jr., G.A. and Cairons Jr., J., Eds., Handbook of Ecototoxicology, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 330-355.
[44] Ogbo, E.M. (2009) Effects of Diesel Fuel Contamination on Seed Germination of Four Crop Plants. Arachis hypogala, Vigna unguiculata, Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8, 250-253.
[45] Asada, K. (1992) Ascorbate Peroxidase: A Hydrogen Peroxide Scavenging Enzyme in Plants. Physiologia Plantarum, 85, 235-241.
[46] Iyawe, H.O.T. and Onigbinde, A.O. (2004) Effect of an Anti-Malarial and Micronutrient Supplementation on Respiration Induced Oxidative Stress. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 3, 318-321.
[47] Panoutsopoulos, G.I. and Beedham, C. (2004) Enzymatic Oxidation of Phthalazine with Guinea Pig Liver Aldehyde Oxidase and Liver Slices: Inhibition by Isovanillin. Acta Biochemistry Polonica, 51, 953-951.
[48] Panoutsopolous, G.I., Kauretas, D. and Beedham, C. (2004) Contribution of Aldehyde Oxidase, Xanthine Oxidase and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase on the Oxidation of Aromatic Aldehyde. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 17, 1368-1376.
[49] Peden, D.B., Hohman, R., Brown, M.E., Masont, R.T., Berkebilef, C., Falest, H.M. and Kaliner M.A. (1990) Uric Acid Is a Major Antioxidant in Human Nasal Airway Secretions. Proceedings of National Academy of Science, 87, 7638-7642.
[50] Nieto, F.J., Iribarren, C., Gross, M.D., Comstock, G.W. and Cutler, R.G. (2000) Uric Acid and Serum Antioxidant Capacity: A Reaction to Atherosclerosis? Atherosclerosis, 148, 131-139.
[51] Trush, M.A. and Kensler, T.W. (1991) An Overview of the Relationship between Oxidative Stress and Chemical Carcinogenesis. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 10, 201-209.
[52] Sies, H. (1991) Oxidative Stress: Introduction. In: Sies, H., Ed., Oxidative Stress: Oxidant and Antioxidants, Academic Press, San Diego, 15-22.
[53] Pigeolet, E., Corbisler, P., Houbion, A., Lambert, D., Michiels, C., Raes, M., et al. (1990) Glutathione Peroxidases, Superoxidase and Oxygen Derived Free Radicals. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, 51, 283-297.
[54] Achuba, F.I. and Otuya, E.O. (2006) Protective Influence of Vitamins against Petroleum-Induced Free Radical Toxicity in Rabbit. The Environmentalist, 26, 295-300.

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.