Use of Sequential, Single and Kinetic Extractive Schemes to Assess Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) Availability in Vietnamese Urban Soils


Modified BCR sequential extraction, single equilibrium-based EDTA extraction and kinetic fractionation were used for estimating the Pb and Cd availability in a series of soil samples from 3 sites located in urban areas of Hanoi (Vietnam). These schemes were compared to identify a simple, rapid and cheap protocol for routine estimation of Pb and Cd remobilizable fraction and the related potential risk. The comparison of these three approaches revealed their convergence in terms of mobility patterns observed for Pb and Cd. Cd was characterized by higher extractibality and mobility whatever the approach. Pb was distinguished of Cd by its high association to Feoxides, lower extractability, lower rate of desorption and then lower mobility. For this environmental scenario, EDTA single scheme at equilibrium could be suggested as the best suited and a simple protocol for determination of the labile pool of Cd and Pb. The pseudo-total concentrations of Pb and Cd are actually below the Vietnamese standard level, contrary to the results obtained by other authors for agricultural soils at other urban sites of Hanoi.

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Manouchehri, N. , Nguyen, T. , Besancon, S. , Le, L. and Bermond, A. (2014) Use of Sequential, Single and Kinetic Extractive Schemes to Assess Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) Availability in Vietnamese Urban Soils. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 5, 1214-1227. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2014.517128.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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