Control System Development and Test for the Operation of a Micro-Grid System—PART I


This paper presents design, analysis and simulation performance of an active power controller for stable and reliable operation of a micro-grid system. Power balance between generation and consumer is a critical issue for stable and reliable operation of the micro-grid systems. This issue becomes more critical when a micro-grid system contains stochastic nature distributed generations such as wind and solar because their output power changes non-uniformly. In order to achieve accurate and fast power balance in such a micro-grid system, power in the system has to be regulated continuously. Such an objective can be achieved using droop based alternating current control technique. Because the droop characteristic employed into the developed controller initiates determining the power deviation in the system which is continuously regulated by controlling the current flow into dump power resistors. The designed controller is simulated for the operation of a micro-grid system in stand-alone mode under various operating conditions. The simulated results show the ability of the developed controller for stable and reliable operation of the micro-grid that contains renewable sources. The experimental development of the micro-grid system and the testing of the developed active power controller are presented in PART II of this paper.

Share and Cite:

Ahshan, R. , Iqbal, M. , Mann, e. and Quaicoe, J. (2014) Control System Development and Test for the Operation of a Micro-Grid System—PART I. Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, 5, 291-301. doi: 10.4236/sgre.2014.512026.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Mahat, P., Chen, Z. and Bak-Jensen, B. (2010) Under Frequency Load Shedding for an Islanded Distribution System with Distributed Generators. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 25, 911-918.
[2] Katiraei, F. and Iravani, M. (2006) Power Management Strategies for a Micro-Grid with Multiple Distributed Generation Units. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 21, 1821-1831.
[3] Lasseter, R.H. (2002) Micro-Grids. IEEE Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, New York, January 2002, 305-308.
[4] Lasseter, R.H., Eto, J.H., Schenkman, B., Stevens, J., Vollkommer, H., Klapp, D., Linton, E., Hurtado, H. and Roy, J. (2011) CERTS Micro-Grid Laboratory Test Bed. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 26, 325-332.
[5] Ahn, S., Park, J., Chung, I., Moon, S., Kang, S. and Nam, S. (2010) Power-Sharing Method of Multiple Distributed Generators Considering Control Modes and Configurations of a Micro-Grid. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 25, 2007-2016.
[6] Ribeiro,, Saavedra, O.R., Lima, S.L. and Matos, (2011) Isolated Micro-Grids with Renewable Hybrid Generation: The Case of Lenis Island. IEEE Transaction on Sustainable Energy, 2, 1-11.
[7] Georgakis, D., Papathanasiou, S.A., Hatziargyriou, N., Engler, A. and Hardt, Ch. (2004) Operation of a Prototype Micro-Grid System Based on Micro-Sources Equipped with Fast-Acting Power Electronics Interfaces. IEEE 35th Annual Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 4, 2521-2526.
[8] Kojima, Y., Koshio, M., Nakamura, S., Maejima, H., Fujioka, Y. and Goda, T. (2007) A Demonstration Project in Hachinohe: Micro-Grid with Private Distribution Line. IEEE International Conference on System of Systems Engineering, San Antonio, 16-18 April 2007, 1-6.
[9] Katiraei, F. and Iravani, M.R. (2005) Transients of a Micro-Grid System with Multiple Distributed Energy Resources. International Conference on Power Systems Transients, Montreal, 19-23 June 2005, Paper No. IPST05-080.
[10] Katiraei, F., Iravani, M.R. and Lehn, P.W. (2005) Micro-Grid Autonomous Operation during and Subsequent to Islanding Process. IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, 20, 248-257.
[11] Shahabi, M., Haghifam, M.R., Mohamadian, M. and Nabavi-Niaki, S.A. (2009) Microgrid Dynamic Performance Improvement Using a Doubly Fed Induction Wind Generator. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 24, 137-145.
[12] Majumder, R., Ghosh, A., Ledwich, G. and Zare, F. (2009) Load Sharing and Power Quality Enhanced Operation of a Distributed Micro-Grid. IET Renewable Power Generation, 3, 109-119.
[13] Kawasaki, K., Matsumura, M., Iwabu, K., Fujimuram, F. and Iima, T. (2009) Autonomous Dispersed Control System for Independent Micro-Grid. Journal of Electrical Engineering, Japan, 166, 1121-1127.
[14] Li, X., Song, Y. and Han, S. (2008) Frequency Control in Micro-Grid Power System Combined with Electrolyzer System and Fuzzy PI Controller. Journal of Power Sources, 180, 468-475.
[15] Mohamed, Y.A.I. and El-Saadany, E.F. (2008) Adaptive Decentralized Droop Controller to Preserve Power Sharing Stability of Paralleled Inverters in Distributed Generation Micro-Grids. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 23, 2806-2816.
[16] Maity, I. and Rao, S. (2010) Simulation and Pricing Mechanism Analysis of a Solar-Powered Electrical Micro-Grid. IEEE Systems Journal, 4, 275-284.
[17] Dagdougui, H., Minciardi, R., Ouammi, A., Robba, M. and Sacile, R. (2010) A Dynamic Decision Model for the Real-Time Control of Hybrid Renewable Energy Production Systems. IEEE Systems Journal, 4, 323-333.
[18] Mohod, S.W. and Aware, M.V. (2010) A STATCOM-Control Scheme for Grid Connected Wind Energy System for Power Quality Improvement. IEEE Systems Journal, 4, 346-352.
[19] Barklund, E., Pogaku, N., Prodanovi′c, M., Aramburo, C.H. and Green, T.C. (2008) Energy Management in Autonomous Micro-Grid Using Stability-Constrained Droop Control of Inverters. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 23, 2346-2352.
[20] Ahshan, R., Iqbal, M.T., Mann, G.K.I. and Quaicoe, J.E. (2010) Micro-Grid System Based on Renewable Power Generation Units. Proceedings of the 23rd Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, Calgary, 2-5 May 2010, 1-4.
[21] Rashid, M.H. (2005) Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices and Applications. 3rd Edition, Prentice-Hall, New Delhi.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.