Fluoride Uptake and Net Primary Productivity of Selected Crops

DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2014.411039   PDF   HTML   XML   2,782 Downloads   3,392 Views   Citations


Crop field soil collected from Sambalpur University campus of Odisha and treated with various fluoride concentrations was used to raise selected local crops. Background concentration of total and leachable fluoride content in soil was 95.19 and 8.89 ppm respectively. At the time of harvest of the crops, the total fluoride content was found to decrease and leachable fluoride content was found to increase both in control and experimental sets. This might be due to the addition of fluoride to soil in the experimental set up as well as availability of background fluoride content in soil and the irrigated water (i.e. 0.5 ppm). The fluoride accumulation in plant tissue increased with increase in the fluoride content in soil. Net Primary Productivity (NPP) of fluoride treated plants decreased in Brinjal by 6.64% - 56.72%, Tomato by 14.46% - 62.24% and Mung by 10.27% - 53.61%, all in 20 - 100 ppm fluoride range. However, NPP of Mustard, Ladies finger and Chili decreased by 15.58% - 61.21%, 12.28% - 52.78% and 40.8% - 90.65% in 10 - 50 ppm fluoride treated sets respectively in 10 - 50 ppm fluoride range. Maize NPP decreased by 12.17% - 61.20% in 20 - 100 ppm fluoride range as Rice NPP decreased by 6.64% - 56.72% in 20 - 100 ppm fluoride range. Pod formation was inhibited at 100 ppm fluoride amended soil in case of Mung, and 50 ppm in Ladies finger, 40 - 100 ppm in Maize and 30 - 50 ppm fluoride amended soil in case of Chilli. Thus, Maize and Chilli are more sensitive to fluoride contamination than other crops. In all the crops NPP decreased with increase in fluoride content in soil with significant decrease in highest concentration of fluoride.

Share and Cite:

Mishra, P. , Sahu, S. , Bhoi, A. and Mohapatra, S. (2014) Fluoride Uptake and Net Primary Productivity of Selected Crops. Open Journal of Soil Science, 4, 388-398. doi: 10.4236/ojss.2014.411039.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Greenwood, Norman, N. and Earnshaw, A. (1997) Chemistry of the Elements. 2nd Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1340 p.
[2] Tebutt, T.H.Y. (1983) Relationship between Natural Water Quality and Health. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris.
[3] Murray, J.J. (1986) Appropriate Use of Fluorides for Human Health. World Health Organization, Geneva.
[4] Edmunds, W.M. and Smedley, P.L. (1996) Groundwater Geochemistry and Health: An Overview. In: Appleton, Fuge and McCall, Eds., Environmental Geochemistry and Health, Vol. 113, Geological Society Special Publication, London, 91-105.
[5] USEPA (1996) R.E.D. FACTS, Cryolite, EPA-738-F-96-016. United States Environmental Protection Agency.
[6] Reeves, T.G. (1986) Water Fluoridation: A Manual for Engineers and Technicians. United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, 138 p.
[7] Reeves, T.G. (1994) Water Fluoridation. A Manual for Water Plant Operators. United States Department of Health and Human Services, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 99 p.
[8] Weinstein, L.H. and Davison, A.W. (2004) Fluorides in the Environment. CABI Publishing, Wallingford.
[9] WHO (1984) Guidelines for Drinking Water Equality. World Health Organisation, Geneva, 2-249.
[10] Haikel, Y. (1986) Fluoride Content of Water, Dust, Soils and Cereals in the Endemic Dental Fluorosis Area of Khouribga (Morocco). Archives of Oral Biology, 31, 279-286.
[11] Haikel, Y. (1989) The Effects of Airborne Fluorides on Oral Conditions in Morocco. Journal of Dental Research, 68, 1238-1241.
[12] WHO (1996) Volume 2: Health Criteria and Other Supporting Information. In: Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, 2nd Edition, World Health Organization, Geneva.
[13] Gu, S.L., Rongli, J. and Shouren, C. (1990) The Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Particles in Indoor Air Where High Fluoride Coal Burning Takes Place. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 3, 384-390.
[14] Davison, A. (1983) Uptake, Transport and Accumulation of Soil and Airborne Fluorides by Vegetation. In: Shupe, J., Peterson, H. and Leone, N., Eds., Fluorides: Effects on Vegetation, Animals and Humans, Paragon Press, Salt Lake City, 61-82.
[15] Polomski, J., Fluhler, H. and Blaser, P. (1982) Accumulation of Airborne Fluoride in Soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 11, 457-461.
[16] Hemens, J. and Warwick, R.J. (1972) The Effects of Fluoride on Estuarine Organisms. Water Research, 6, 1301-1308.
[17] ATSDR (1993) Toxicological Profile for Fluorides, Hydrogen Fluoride, and Fluorine. US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (TP-91/17), Atlanta.
[18] Michel, J., Suttie, J. and Sunde, M. (1984) Fluorine Deposition in Bone as Related to Physiological State. Poultry Science, 63, 1407-1411.
[19] Kierdorf, H. and Kierdorf, U. (1997) Disturbances of the Secretory Stage of Amelogenesis in Fluorosed Deer Teeth: A Scanning Electron-Microscopic Study. Cell and Tissue Research, 289, 125-135.
[20] Sands, M., Nicol, S. and McMinn, A. (1998) Fluoride in Antarctic Marine Crustaceans. Marine Biology, 132, 591-598.
[21] Sloof, W., Eerens, H., Janus, J. and Ros, J. (1989) Integrated Criteria Document: Fluorides. Bilthoven, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Report No. 758474010).
[22] Moeri, P.B. (1980) Effect of Fluoride Emission in Enzyme Activity in Metabolism of Agric Plants. Fluoride, 13, 122-128.
[23] Rath, S.P., Sarangi, P.K. and Mishra, P.C. (1998) Bioaccumulation and Bioconcentration of Fluoride in Environmental Segments of Hirakud, India. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, 18, 199-202.
[24] Mishra, P.C., Pradhan, K., Meher, K. and Bhosagar, D. (2009) Fluoride in the Environmental Segments at Hirakud of Western Orissa, India. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 3, 260-264.
[25] Mishra, P.C. and Mohapatra, A.K. (1998) Haematological Characteristics and Bone Fluoride Content in Bufo melanostictus from an Aluminium Industrial Site. Environmental Pollution, 99, 421-423.
[26] Mishra, P.C. and Pradhan, K. (2006) Prevalence of Fluorosis among School Children and Cattle Population in Hirakud Town of Orissa. Bioscan, 2, 31-36.
[27] Mishra, P.C. and Sahu, S.K. (2013) Effect of Fluoride on Locally Available Crops. Project Report Submitted to Vedanta Aluminium Company Ltd., Jharsuguda, 124 p.
[28] Odum, E.P. (1960) Organic Production and Turnover in Old Field Succession. Ecology, 41, 34-49.
[29] Stevens, D.P., McLaughlin, M.J. and Alston, A.M. (1997) Phytotoxicity of Aluminium-Fluoride Complexes Culture by Avena sativa and Lycopersicon esclentum. Plant and Soil, 192, 81-93.
[30] Stevens, D.P., McLaughlin, M.J. and Alston, A.M. (1998) Phytotoxicity of Hydrogen Fluoride and Fluoroborate and Their Uptake from Solution Culture by Lycopersicon esculentum and Avena sativa. Plant and Soil, 200, 175-184.
[31] Klumpp, A., Klump, G., Domingos, M. and Silva, M.D.D. (1996) Fluoride Impact on Native Tree Species of the Atlantic Forest near Cubatao, Brazil. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 87, 57-71.
[32] Hocking, M.B., Hocking, D. and Smyth, T.A. (1980) Fluoride Distribution and Dispersion Processes about an Industrial Point Source in a Forested Coastal Zone. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 14, 133-157.
[33] Black, C.A. (1968) Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium. In: Soil Plant Relationships, 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 405-773.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.