Problems in Water Environmental Control—Sense and Nonsense in Measurement of Water Protection
Stig Morling*
Sweco Environment, Stockholm, Sweden.
DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.615127   PDF    HTML   XML   3,137 Downloads   4,032 Views   Citations


Water environmental control and process refinement inside a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is fundamentally based on sampling, analysis and on-line measurements on water and sludge streams. The problems related to an accurate and reliable control and thus an efficient water protection are addressed in the following. Four different crucial points whenever a sampling and control scheme is planned: 1) Where should a sampling and on-line measurement take place? 2) When should sampling take place? 3) How should the sampling and on-line measurement take place? 4) Which variables should be controlled? Examples are given from different plants demonstrating ways to address the questions. Especially the relevance of the adopted parameter BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) is discussed. It is finally suggested to even abandon the use of BOD as consent variable in favor of on-line measurement of Suspended Solids, Nitrogen and Phosphorous.

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Morling, S. (2014) Problems in Water Environmental Control—Sense and Nonsense in Measurement of Water Protection. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 6, 1381-1389. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.615127.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] European Union (1991) Council Directive 91/271/EEC Concerning Urban Waste Water Treatment.
[2] Alcontrol Analysis Protocols.
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[5] Morling, S. (2008) Nitrogen Removal Efficiency and Nitrification Rates at the Sequencing Batch Reactor in NowyTarg, Poland. VATTEN, 2.
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[7] Helsinki Commission (2007) Background Information on Costs for the Revised Proposal from Sweden Concerning More Stringent Demands Regarding Discharges of Phosphorus from Waste Water Treatment Plants.
[8] Umble, A.K. (2010) Nutrients and Technologies That Remove Them. Indiana Water Environment Association.

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