Share This Article:

Re-Assessment of Forest Carbon Balance in Southeast Asia: Policy Implications for REDD+

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:2948KB) PP. 153-171
DOI: 10.4236/lce.2014.54016    4,537 Downloads   5,341 Views   Citations
Author(s)    Leave a comment

ABSTRACT

Southeast Asia is rich in tropical forests and biodiversity but rapid deforestation and forest degradation have accelerated climate change and threatened sustainable development in the region. Carbon emission reductions through reducing deforestation and forest degradation, forest conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+) have been a focal topic of the climate change mitigation since the Bali in 2007. However, only a handful of studies exist so far on this important issue that are suitable to inform the debate with estimates of carbon stocks and emission reductions or removals as a result of REDD+. Our study attempts to analyze the potential emission reductions and removals for a 35-year period under the REDD+ scheme. We start by developing land use change and forest harvesting models that are used to estimate carbon stock changes in natural forests and forest plantations in Southeast Asia. Carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation of natural forests were 1865.1, 1611.4, and 1300.4 TgCO2 year-1, respectively. With a hypothetical carbon project of 35 years beginning from 2015, carbon emission reductions were estimated at 817.6 TgCO2 year-1, of which about 10% was from reducing forest degradation. Carbon removals due to increase of forest plantations were 76.3 TgCO2 year-1 but the removals could be much higher if there is a new definition on the eligibility of forest plantations. Summing up together, about 893.9 TgCO2 of carbon credits could be achieved from implementing carbon project in Southeast Asia or about US $6.6 billion annually between 2015 and 2050 if carbon price in 2012 is used. In addition to reducing emissions, there are other benefits from carbon project implementation. This study suggests that REDD+ has great potential for reducing carbon emissions and enhancing carbon stocks in the forests. Without financial incentives, carbon project would not happen and therefore climate change will continue to threaten future development.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Khun, V. and Sasaki, N. (2014) Re-Assessment of Forest Carbon Balance in Southeast Asia: Policy Implications for REDD+. Low Carbon Economy, 5, 153-171. doi: 10.4236/lce.2014.54016.

References

[1] Achard, F., Eva, D.H., Mayaux, P., Stibig, H.J. and Belward, A. (2004) Improved Estimates of Net Carbon Emissions from Land Cover Change in the Tropics for the 1990s. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 18, Article ID: GB2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2003GB002142
[2] Gullison, F.R., Frumhoff, C.P., Canadell, G.J., et al. (2007) Tropical Forests and Climate Policy. Science, 136, 985-986. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1136163
[3] Houghton, R.A. (2003) Revised Estimates of the Annual Net Flux of Carbon to the Atmosphere from Changes in Land Use and Land Management 1850-2000. Tellus 55B, 2, 378-390.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0889.2003.01450.x
[4] Nepstad, D., Verssimo, A., Alencar, A., Nobre, C., et al. (1999) Large-Scale Impoverishment of Amazonian Forests by Logging and Fire. Nature, 398, 505-508. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/19066
[5] Houghton, R.A., Skole, D.L., Nobre, C.A., et al. (2000) Annual Fluxes of Carbon from Deforestation and Regrowth in the Brazilian Amazon. Nature, 403, 301-304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35002062
[6] UNFCCC (2008) Report of the Conference of the Parties on Its Thirteenth Session. Bali, 3-15 December 2007, 60 p.
[7] Miles, L. and Kapos, V. (2008) Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation: Global Land-Use Implications. Science, 320, 1454-1455.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1155358
[8] Kindermann, G., Obersteiner, M., Sohngen, B., et al. (2008) Global Cost Estimates of Reducing Carbon Emissions through Avoided Deforestation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 10302-10307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0710616105
[9] Anger, N. and Sathaye, J. (2008) Reducing Deforestation and Trading Emissions: Economic Implications for the Post-Kyoto Carbon Market. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 39 p.
[10] Ebeling, J. and Yasue, M. (2008) Generating Carbon Finance through Avoided Deforestation and Its Potential to Create Climatic, Conservation and Human Development Benefits. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 363, 1917-1924. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.0029
[11] De Fries, R., Achard, F., Brown, S., Herold, M., Murdiyarso, D., Schlamadinger, B. and de Souza Jr., C. (2007) Earth Observations for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries. Environmental Science and Policy, 10, 385-394.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2007.01.010
[12] Achard, F., Eva, H.D., Stibig, H.J., Mayaux, P., Gallego, J., Richards, T. and Malingreau, J.P. (2002) Determination of Deforestation Rates of the World’s Humid Tropical Forests. Science, 297, 999-1002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1070656
[13] Fearnside, P.M. and Laurance, W.F. (2003) Comment on “Determination of Deforestation Rates of the World’s Humid Tropical Forests”. Science, 299, 1015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1078714
[14] Eva, H.D., Achard, F., Stibig, H.J. and Mayaux, P. (2003) Response to Comment on Determination of Deforestation Rates of the World’s Humid Tropical Forests. Science, 299, 1015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1079819
[15] Houghton, R.A. (2003) Why Are Estimates of the Terrestrial Carbon Balance so Different? Global Change Biology, 9, 500-509. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2486.2003.00620.x
[16] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC (2000) Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry: A Special Report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 377 p.
[17] Pan, Y., Birdsey, R.A., Fang, J., Houghton, R., Kauppi, P.E., Kurz, W.A., et al. (2011) A Large and Persistent Carbon Sink in the World’s Forests. Science, 333, 988-993.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1201609
[18] FAO (2001) Global Forest Resource Assessments 2000 (Main Report). FAO Forestry Paper 140, Rome.
[19] Kim Phat, N., Knorr, W. and Kim, S. (2004) Appropriate Measures for Conservation of Terrestrial Carbon Stocks— Analysis of Trends of Forest Management in Southeast Asia. Ecology Management, 191, 283-299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2003.12.019
[20] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAO (2010) Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010. FAO Forestry Paper 163. FAO, Rome.
[21] IPCC (2006) 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. IPCC/OECD/IEA, Paris.
[22] Cerri, C.E.P., Coleman, K., Jenkinson, S.D., Bernoux, M., Victoria, R. and Cerri, C.C. (2003) Modeling Soil Carbon from Forest and Pasture Ecosystems of Amazon, Brazil. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 67, 1879-1887. http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2003.1879
[23] Guo, L.B. and Gifford, R.M. (2002) Soil Carbon Stocks and Land Use Change: A Meta Analysis. Global Change Biology, 8, 345-360. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1354-1013.2002.00486.x
[24] Kim, S., Kim Phat, N., Koike, M. and Hayashi, H. (2006) Estimating Actual and Potential Government Revenues from Timber Harvesting in Cambodia. Forest Policy and Economy, 8, 625-635.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2004.12.001
[25] Sasaki, N., Kimsun, C. and Ty, S. (2012) Managing Production Forests for Timber Production and Carbon Emission Reductions under the REDD+ Scheme. Environmental Science & Policy, 23, 35-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2012.06.009
[26] Aye, Y., Pampasit, S., Umponstira, C., Thanacharoenchanaphas, K. and Sasaki, N. (2014) Estimation of Carbon Emission Reductions by Managing Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest: Case Study in Popa Mountain Park. Low Carbon Economy, 5, 80-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/lce.2014.52009
[27] Kim Phat, N., Ouk, S., Uozumi, Y. and Ueki, T. (2000) Stand Dynamics of Dipterocarp Trees in Cambodia’s Ever-Green Forest and Management Implications—A Case Study in Sandan District, Kamong Thom. Japanese Journal of Forest Planning, 6, 13-23.
[28] Griscom, B., Ganz, D., Virgilio, N., Price, F., Hayward, J., Cortez, R., et al. (2009) The Hidden Frontier of Forest Degradation: A Review of the Science, Policy and Practice of Reducing Degradation Emissions. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington.
[29] Sist, P. and Saridan, A. (1998) Description of the Primary Lowland Forest of Berau. In: Bertault, J.G. and Kadir, K., Eds., Silvicultural Research in a Lowland Mixed Dipterocarp Forest of East Kalimantan, The Contribution of STREK Project, CIRAD-FORDA-P.T. INHUTANII, 51-94.
[30] Berry, N.J., Phillips, O.L., Lewis, S.L., Hill, J.K., Edwards, D.P., Tawato, N.B., Ahmad, N., Magintan, D., Khen, C.V., Maryati, M., Ong, R.C. and Hamer, K.C. (2010) The High Value of Logged Tropical Forests: Lessons from Northern Borneo. Biodiversity and Conservation, 19, 985-997.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10531-010-9779-z
[31] Pinard, A.M. and Putz, E.F. (1996) Retaining Forest Biomass by Reducing Logging Damage. Biotropica, 28, 278-295. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2389193
[32] Imai, N., Samejima, H., Langner, A., Ong, R.C., Kita, S., Titin, J., et al. (2009) Co-Benefits of Sustainable Forest Management in Biodiversity Conservation and Carbon Sequestration. PLoS ONE, 4, e8267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008267
[33] Okuda, T., Suzuki, M., Numata, S., Yoshida, K., Nishimura, S., Adachi, N., Niiyama, K., Manokaran, N. and Hashim, M. (2004) Estimation of Aboveground Biomass in Logged and Primary Lowland Rainforests Using 3-D Photogrammetric Analysis. Forest Ecology and Management, 203, 63-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2004.07.056
[34] Lasco, R.D. and Pulhin, F.B. (2009) Carbon Budgets of Forest Ecosystems in the Philippines. Journal of Environmental Science and Management, 12, 1-13.
[35] Petsri, S. and Pumijumnong, N. (2007) Aboveground Carbon Content in Mixed Deciduous Forest and Teak Plantations. Environment and Natural Resources Journal, 5, 1-10.
[36] Van Con, T., Thang, N.T., Ha, D.T.T., Khiem, C.C., Quy, T.H., Lam, V.T., Van Do, T. and Sato, T. (2013) Relationship between Aboveground Biomass and Measures of Structure and Species Diversity in Tropical Forests of Vietnam. Forest Ecology and Management, 310, 213-218.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.08.034
[37] Brown, S. (1997) Estimating Biomass and Biomass Change of Tropical Forests: A Primer. FAO Forestry Paper 134, Rome.
[38] FERN, the Forests and the European Union Resource Network (2002) Illegal Logging, and the Global Trade in Illegally Sourced Timber; a Crime against Forests and Peoples. http://www.fern.org
[39] DAI (1998) Findings and Recommendations of the Log Monitoring and Logging Control Project. Report Submitted to the Royal Government of Cambodia, Department of Forestry and Wildlife, Phnom Penh.
[40] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) (1981) Tropical Forest Resources Assessment Project (in the Framework of GEMS). Forest Resources of Tropical Asia. Technical Report 3, FAO, Rome.
[41] International Tropical Timber Organization, ITTO (1994) The Economic Case for Natural Forest Management PCV (VI)/13. Volume II, Country Reports: Thailand 1-41, Malaysia 1-71 and Indonesia 1-27.
[42] Van, N.T. (1998) Forest Resources Utilization in Vietnam Transition from Natural Forests to Plantation. In: Yoshimoto, A. and Yukutake, K., Eds., Proceedings of International Symposium on Global Concerns for Forest Resource Utilization, Sustainable Use and Management, Japan Society of Forest Planning Press, Tokyo, 362-368.
[43] Kim Phat, N., Ouk, S., Uozumi, Y., et al. (2002) Management of Mixed Forest in Cambodia—A Case Study in Sandan District, Kamong Thom. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, 38, 45-54.
[44] Phillips, O.L., Malhi, Y., Higuchi, N., Laurance, W.F., Nú?ez, P.V., Vásquez, R.M., et al. (1998) Changes in the Carbon Balance of Tropical Forests: Evidence from Long-Term Plots. Science, 282, 439-442. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.282.5388.439
[45] Van Gardingen, P.R., McLeish, M.J., Phillips, P.D., Fadilah, D., Tyrie, G. and Yasman, I. (2003) Financial and Ecological Analysis of Management Options for Logged-Over Dipterocarp Forests in Indonesian Borneo. Forest Ecology and Management, 183, 1-29.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(03)00097-5
[46] Alder, D. and Silva, J.N.M. (2000) An Empirical Cohort Model for Management of Terra Firme Forests in the Brazilian Amazon. Forest Ecology and Management, 130, 141-157.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(99)00196-6
[47] Wadsworth, F.H. and Zweede, J.C. (2006) Liberation: Acceptable Production of Tropical Forest Timber. Forest Ecology and Management, 233, 45-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2006.05.072
[48] Tay, J., Healey, J. and Price, C. (2002) Financial Assessment of Reduced Impact Logging Techniques in Sabah, Malaysia. In: Enters, T., Durst, B.T., Applegate, B.G., Kho, C.S.P. and Man, G., Eds., Applying Reduced Impact Logging to Advance Sustainable Forest Management, FAO, Bangkok, 125-140.
[49] FAO (2001) Financial and Economic Assessment of Timber Harvesting Operations in Sarawak, Malaysia. Forest Harvesting Case Studies 17, FAO, Rome.
[50] Sist, P., Sheil, D., Kartawinata, K. and Priyadi, H. (2003) Reduced-Impact Logging in Indonesian Borneo: Some Results Confirming the Need for New Silvicultural Prescriptions. Forest Ecology and Management, 179, 415-427. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(02)00533-9
[51] Iskandar, H., Snook, L.K., Toma, T., et al. (2006) Comparison of Damage Due to Logging under Different Forms of Resource Access in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Forest Ecology and Management, 237, 83-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2006.09.079
[52] Kimsun, C., Sasaki, N. and Mizoue, N. (2011) Impacts of Reduced Impact Logging on Stand Structures in Mixed Forests in Three Northeastern Provinces in Cambodia. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on FORCOM Follow-Up and New Challenge for Coming Generations, Mie, 25-30 September 2011, 23 p.
[53] FAO (1995) Forest Resources Assessment 1990—Tropical Forest Plantation Resources. FAO Forestry Paper 128, Rome.
[54] De Costa, W.A.J.M. and Suranga, H.R. (2012) Estimation of Carbon Stocks in the Forest Plantations of Sri Lanka. Journal of National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 40, 9-41.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/jnsfsr.v40i1.4166
[55] Kadeba, O. (1991) Above-Ground Biomass Production and Nutrient Accumulation in an Age Sequence of Pinus caribaea Stands. Forest Ecology and Management, 41, 237-248.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-1127(91)90106-6
[56] Egunjobi, J.K. and Bada, S.O. (1979) Biomass and Nutrient Distribution in Stands of Pinus caribea in the Dry Forestzone of Nigeria. Biotropica, 11, 130-135. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2387790
[57] Dharmaparakrama, S. (2006) Carbon Sequestration in Major Land Use Types in the Knuckles Forest and Surrounding Region, Sri Lanka. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna.
[58] Turner, J. and Lambert, M.J. (1983) Nutrient Cycling within a 27-Year-Old Eucalyptus grandis Plantation in New South Wales. Forest Ecology and Management, 6, 155-168.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-1127(83)90019-1
[59] Birk, E.M. and Turner, J. (1992) Response of Flooded gum (E. Grandis) to Intensive Cultural Treatments: Biomass and Nutrient Content of Eucalypt Plantations and Native Forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 47, 1-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-1127(92)90262-8
[60] Nissanka, S.P. and Ariyaratne, C.H.K. (2003) Estimation of Growth, Volume Accumulation and Carbon Sequestration of Eucalyptus grandis Plantations in up Country Region of Sri Lanka. Proceedings of the International Conference on Tropical Forests and Climate Change, Manila, 21-22 October 2003.
[61] Stape, J.L., Binkley, D. and Ryan, M.G. (2008) Production and Carbon Allocation in a Clonal Eucalyptus Plantation with Water and Nutrient Manipulations. Forest Ecology and Management, 255, 920-930. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.09.085
[62] Bernado, A.L., Reis, M.G.F., Reis, G.G., Harrison, R.B. and Firme, D.J. (1998) Effect of Spacing on Growth and Biomass Distribution in Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. pellita and E. urophylla Plantations in Southeastern Brazil. Forest Ecology and Management, 104, 1-13.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(97)00199-0
[63] Hunter, I. (2001) Above Ground Biomass and Nutrient Uptake of Three Tree Species (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus grandis and Dalbergia sissoo) as Affected by Irrigation and Fertiliser, at 3 Years of Age, in Southern India. Forest Ecology and Management, 144, 189-200.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(00)00373-X
[64] Mbaekwe, E.I. and Mackenzie, J.A. (2008) The Use of a Best-Fit Allometric Model to Estimate above Ground Biomass Accumulation and Distribution in an Age Series of Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) Plantations at Gambari Forest Reserve, Oyo State, Nigeria. Tropical Ecology, 49, 259-270.
[65] Kraenzel, M., Castillo, A., Moore, T. and Potvin, C. (2003) Carbon Storage of Harvest-Age Teak (Tectona grandis) Plantations, Panama. Forest Ecology and Management, 173, 213-225.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(02)00002-6
[66] Pérez Cordero, L.D. and Kanninen, M. (2003) Above-Ground Biomass of Tectona grandis Plantations in Costa Rica. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 15, 199-213.
[67] Ola-Adams, B.A. (1993) Effects of Spacing on Biomass Distribution and Nutrient Content of Tectona grandis Linn. f. (Teak) and Terminalia superba Engl. & Diels. (Afara) in South-Western Nigeria. Forest Ecology and Management, 58, 299-319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-1127(93)90152-D
[68] Lasco, R.D. and Pulhin, F.B. (2003) Philippine Forest Ecosystems and Climate Change: Carbon Stocks, Rate of Sequestration and the Kyoto Protocol. Annals of Tropical Research, 25, 37-51.
[69] Kawahara, T., Kanazawa, Y. and Sakurai S. (1981) Biomass and Net Production of Manmade Forests in the Philippines. Journal of the Japanese Forest Society, 63, 320-327.
[70] Racelis, M.E.L. (2000) Carbon Stock Assessment of Large Leaf Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) and Dipterocarp Plantations in the Mt. Makiling Forest Reserve, Philippines. Master’s Thesis, University of Philippines, Los Banos.
[71] Wadsworth, F., González, E., Colón, J.F. and Pérez, J. (2003) Fifty-Nine-Year Performance of Planted Big-Leaf Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) in Puerto Rico. Ecological Studies, 159, 342-357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/0-387-21778-9_17
[72] Tsai, L.M. (1988) Studies on Acacia mangium in Kemasul Forest, Malaysia. I. Biomass and Productivity. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 4, 293-302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0266467400002856
[73] Lasco, R.D., Pulhin, F.B., Visco, R.G., Racelis, D.A., Guillermo, I.Q. and Sales, R.F. (2000) Carbon Stocks Assessment of Philippine Forest Ecosystems. Proceedings of Science-Policy Workshop on Terrestrial Carbon Assessment for Possible Carbon Trading, Bogor, 18-20 February 2000.
[74] Buante, C.R. (1997) Biomass Production of Acacia mangium Willd., Gmelina arborea Roxb., and Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth. as Fuel Wood Species in Leyte. Developments in Agroforestry Research. Book Series No. 160/1997, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development, Los Ba?os, 224-246.
[75] Ty, S., Sasaki, N., Ahmad, A.H. and Zainal Ariffin, Z. (2011) REDD Development in Cambodia: Potential Carbon Emission Reductions in a REDD Project. FORMATH, 10, 1-23.
[76] Putz, F.E., Zuidema, P.A., Pinard, M.A., Boot, R.G.A., Sayer, J.A., Sheil, D., Sist, P. and Vanclay, J.K. (2008) Improved Tropical Forest Management for Carbon Retention. PLoS Biology, 6, e166.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060166
[77] Sasaki, N. and Putz, F.E. (2009) Critical Need for New Definitions of Forest and Forest Degradation in Global Climate Change Agreements. Conservation Letters, 2, 226-232.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2009.00067.x
[78] FAO (2005) Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005. Progress towards Sustainable Forest Management. FAO Forestry Paper 147, Rome, 350 p.
[79] Miettinen, J., Shi, C. and Liew, S.C. (2011) Deforestation Rates in Insular Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2010. Global Change Biology, 17, e2261-e2270.
[80] Peters-Stanley, M. and Gonzalez, G. (2014) Sharing the Stage State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2014. A Report by Forest Trends’ Ecosystem Marketplace: Executive Summary, Washington DC, 22 p.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.