Enhancing the Yields of Phenolic Compounds during Fermentation Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain 96581


Phenylethanol, tyrosol, and tryptophol are phenolic compounds or fusel alcohols formed via the Ehrlich pathway by yeast metabolism. These compounds can yield health benefits as well as contribute to the flavors and aromas of fermented food and beverages. This research shows that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain 96581 is capable of producing significantly higher levels of these three compounds when the precursor amino acids were supplemented into either the Chardonnay concentrate for wine-making or the malt concentrate for brewing English Ale. Strain 96581 can produce phenylethanol, tyrosol, and tryptophol as high as 434 mg/kg, 365 mg/kg, and 129 mg/kg, respectively, in the beer fermentation. The performance of Ale yeast WLP002 from White Labs Inc. was also analyzed for comparison. Strain 96581 outperformed WLP002 in the control beer, the amino acids supplemented beer, and the kiwi-beer background. This shows that Strain 96581 is more effective than WLP002 in converting the malt and the kiwi fruit supplements via its endogenous enzymes.

Share and Cite:

Banach, A. and Ooi, B. (2014) Enhancing the Yields of Phenolic Compounds during Fermentation Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain 96581. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 5, 2063-2070. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.521218.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Linden, T., Peetre, J. and Hahn-Hagerdal, B. (1992) Isolation and Characterization of Acetic Acid-Tolerant Galactose-Fermenting Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from a Spent Sulfite Liquor Fermentation Plant. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 58, 1661-1669.
[2] Ooi, B.G., Wanamaker, L.E., Markuszewski, B.M. and Chong, N.S. (2008) Genetic and Enological Analysis of Selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains for Wine Production. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 43, 1111-1120.
[3] Giovannini, C., Straface, E., Modesti, D., Coni, E., Cantafora, A., De Vincenzi, M., Malorni, W. and Masella, R. (1999) Tyrosol, the Major Olive Oil Biophenol, Protects against Oxidized-LDL-Induced Injury in Caco-2 Cells. Journal of Nutrition, 129, 1269-1277.
[4] Miró-Casas, E., Covas, M., Fitó, M., Farré-Albadalejo, M., Marrugat, J. and de la Torre, R. (2003) Tyrosol and Hydroxytyrosol are Absorbed from Moderate and Sustained Doses of Virgin Olive Oil in Humans. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57, 186-190.
[5] Samuel, S.M., Thirunavukkarasu, M., Penumathsa, S.V., Paul, D. and Maulik, N. (2008) Akt/FOXO3a/SIRT1-Mediated Cardioprotection by n-Tyrosolagainst Ischemic Stress in Rat in Vivo Model of Myocardial Infarction: Switching Gears toward Survival and Longevity. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 56, 9692-9698.
[6] Willcox, B.J., Donlon, T.A., He, Q., Chen, R., Grove, J.S., Yano, K., Masaki, K.H., Willcox, D.C, Rodriguez, B. and Curb, J.D. (2008) FOXO3a Genotype Is Strongly Associated with Human Longevity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America, 105, 13987-13992.
[7] Thirunavukkarasu, M., Penumathsa, S.V., Samuel, S.M., Akita, Y., Zhan, L., Bertelli, A.A., Maulik, G. and Maulik, N. (2008) White Wine-induced Cardio Protection against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury is Mediated by Life-Extending Akt/FOXO3a/NFκB Survival Pathway. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 6733-6739.
[8] Cornford, E.M., Bocash, W.D., Braun, L.D., Crane, P.D., Oldendorf, W.H. and MacInnis, A.J. (1979) Rapid Distribution of Tryptophol (3-Indole Ethanol) to the Brain and Other Tissues. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 63, 1241-1248.
[9] Ehrlich, F. (1912) Uber Tryptophol (β-Indolyl-Athylalkohol), Einneues Garprodukt der Hefeaus Aminosauren. Berichte der DeutschenChemischenGesellschaft, 45, 883-889.
[10] Hazelwood, L.A., Daran, J.-M., van Marris, A.J.A., Pronk, J.T. and Dickson, J.R. (2008) Ehrlich Pathway for Fusel Alcohol Production: A Century of Research on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Metabolism. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74, 2259-2266.
[11] Holmes, B. and Sorkin, E.M. (1986) Indoramin. Drugs, 31, 467-499.
[12] Lingappa, B.T., Prasad, M., Lingappa, Y., Hunt, D.F. and Biemann, K. (1969) Phenethyl Alcohol and Tryptophol: Autoantibiotics Produced by the Fungus Candida albicans. Science, 163, 192-194.
[13] Jang, M., Cai, L., Udeani, G.O., Slowing, K.V., Thomas, C.F., Beecher, C.W., Fong, H.H., Farnsworth, N.R., Kinghown, A.D., Mehta, R.G., Moon, R.C. and Pezzuto, J.M. (1997) Cancer Chemopreventive Activity of Resveratrol, a Natural Product Derived from Grapes. Science, 275, 218-220.
[14] Gerh?user, C. (2005) Beer Constituents as Potential Cancer Chemopreventive Agents. European Journal of Cancer, 41, 1941-1954.
[15] Zhao, F., Nozawa, H., Daikonnya, A., Kondo, K. and Kitanaka, S. (2003) Inhibitors of Nitric Oxide Production from Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 26, 61-65.
[16] Buckwold, V.E., Wilson, R.J., Nalca, A., Beer, B.B., Voss, T.G., Turpin, J.A., Buckheit, R.W., Wei, J., Wenzel-Mathers, M., Walton, E.M., Smith, R.J., Pallansch, M., Ward, P., Wells, J., Chuvala, L., Sloane, S., Paulman, R., Russell, J., Hartman, T. and Ptak, R. (2004) Antiviral Activity of Hop Constituents against a Series of DNA and RNA Viruses. Antiviral Research, 61, 57-62.
[17] Fruits High in Tyrosine. Whole Food Catalog. N.p. Web.
[18] Carey, G. (1998) Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) II: Practical Guide to ANOVA and MANOVA for SAS.
[19] OSU (2014) Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Quality Factors for Malting, Brewing and Other End-Uses.
[20] Wood, M. (2010) Secrets to Superb Malting Barleys Explored by ARS Researchers. USDA Agricultural Research Service.
[21] Wood, M. (2010) Like Malt? You’ll Love This Malting Barley Research! USDA Agricultural Research Service.
[22] Jordán, M.J., Margaría, C.A., Shaw, P.E. and Goodner, K.L. (2002) Aroma Active Components in Aqueous Kiwi Fruit Essence and Kiwi Fruit Puree by GC-MS and Multidimensional GC/GC-O. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 50, 5386-5390.
[23] Harrison, G.A.F. (1970) The Flavour of Beer—A Review. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 76, 486-495.
[24] Rosculet, G. (1971) Aroma and Flavor of Beer. II. Origin and Nature of Less Volatile and Nonvolatile Components of Beer. The Brewers Digest, 46, 68-98.
[25] Szlavko, C.M. (1973) Tryptophol, Tyrosol and Phenylethanol—The Aromatic Higher Alcohols in Beer. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 79, 283-288.
[26] Eshkol, N., Sendovski, M., Bahalul, M., Katz-Ezov, T., Kashi, Y. and Fishman, A. (2009) Production of 2-Phenylethanol from L-Phenylalanine by a Stress Tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2, 534-542.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.