Impact of Selected Environmental Pollutants on the Ultrastructure of the Gills in Pinctada radiata from Coastal Zones, Egypt

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:1369KB) PP. 907-917
DOI: 10.4236/oje.2014.414076    3,398 Downloads   3,961 Views  

ABSTRACT

There has been an increasing interest in marine oysters (order: Petridae) in recent years because their numbers are declining in many parts of the world and also because they are used as monitors of pollution. The present study describes the microscopic structure of gills as viewed by light and electron microscopy in two locations selected in Alexandria coast, Eastern Harbor (E.H.) and El Asafra. The specimens in the E.H. represent the presence of extracellular mineralized granules.

Cite this paper

Hamed, S. , Radwan, E. and Saad, G. (2014) Impact of Selected Environmental Pollutants on the Ultrastructure of the Gills in Pinctada radiata from Coastal Zones, Egypt. Open Journal of Ecology, 4, 907-917. doi: 10.4236/oje.2014.414076.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] Robertson, L.J. (2007) The Potential for Marine Bivalve Shellfish to Act as Out Breaks of Protozooan Infection in Human: A Review. International Journal of Microbiology, 120, 201-218.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.07.058
[2] Madkour, H.A. (2005) Distribution and Relationships of Heavy Metals in the Gaint Clam (Tridacna maxima) and Associated Sediments from Different Sites in the Egyptian Red Sea Coast. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 31, 45-59.
[3] Abdel-Shafy, H.I. and Aly, R.O. (2002) Water Issue in Egypt: Resources, Pollution and Protection Endeavors. CEJOEM, 8, 3-21.
[4] Avelar, W.E.P., Mantelatto, F.L.M., Tomazelli, A.C., Silva, D.M.L., Shuhama, T. and Lopes, J.L.C. (2000) The Marine Mussel Perna perna (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mytilidae) as an Indicator of Contamination by Heavy Metals in the Ubatuba Bay, Sao Paula, Brazil. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 118, 65-72.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005109801683
[5] Coksu, M.Z.L., Akar, M., Cevic, F. and Findik, O. (2005) Bioaccumulation of Some Heavy Metals (Cd, Fe, Zn, Cu) in Two Bivalvia Species (Pinctada radiata Leach, 1814 and Brachidontespharaonis Fischer, 1870). Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 29, 89-93.
[6] Zyadah, M., Ibrahim, M. and Madkour, A. (2004) Impact of Environmental Parameters on Benthic Invertebrates and Zooplankton Biodiversity of the Eastern Region of Delta Coast at Damietta, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, 8, 37-52.
[7] Chase, M.E., Jones, S.H., Hennigar, P., Sowles, J., Harding, G.C.H., Fereeman, K., Wells, P.G., Krahforst, C., Coombs, K., Crawford, R., Pederson, J. and Taylor, D. (2001) Gulpwatch: Monitoring Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Trace Metal and Organic Contaminats in the Gulf of Maine (1991-1997) with the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42, 491-505. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(00)00193-4
[8] Kremling, K. (1983) The Behavior of Zn, Cd, Ni, Co, Fe, and Mn in Anoxic Baltic Waters. Marine Chemistry, 13, 87-108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-4203(83)90019-1
[9] Lionetto, M.G., Giordano, M.E., Caricato, R., Pascariello, M.F., Marinosci, L. and Schettino, T. (2001) Biomonitoring of Heavy Metal Contamination along the Salento Coast (Italy) by Metallothionein Evaluation in Mytilus galloprovincialis and Mullus barbatus. Aquatic Conservation, 11, 305-310.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aqc.458
[10] O’Connor, T.P. (2002) National Distribution of Chemical Concentrations in Mussels and Oysters in the U.S.A. Marine Environmental Research, 53, 117-143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0141-1136(01)00116-7
[11] MacFarlane, G.R., Markich, S.J., Linz, K., Giffords, S., Dustan, R.H., O’Conner, W. and Russell, R.A. (2005) The Akoya Pearl Oyster Shell as an Archival Monitor of Lead Exposure. Environmental Pollution, 143, 166-173.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2005.10.042
[12] Sokolova, I.M., Evans, S. and Hughes, F.M. (2004) Cadmium-Induced Apoptosis in Oyster Haemocytes Involves Disturbance of Cellular Energy Balance but No Mitochondrial Permeability Transition. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 207, 3369-3380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.01152
[13] Graczyk, T.K., Conn, D., Marcoliese, D., Graczyk, H. and De Lafontaine, Y. (2002) Accumulation of Human Waterborne Parasites by Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and Asian Fresh Water Clams (Corbicula fluminea). Parasitology Research, 89, 107-112.
[14] Mariano, A., Lobardo, L., Florentino, C., Orlandella, B., Monticelli, L., Nostro, A. and Alonzo, V. (2005) Uptake of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerea Non-01 and Enterococcus durans and Depuration of Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). International Journal of Food Microbiology, 99, 281-286.
[15] Stentiford, G.D., Longshow, M., Lyons, B., Tonesa, G., Green, M. and Feist, S.W. (2003) Histopathological Biomarkers in Estuarine Fish Species for the Assessment of Biological Effects of Contaminants. Marine Environmental Research, 55, 137-159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0141-1136(02)00212-X
[16] El Shenawy, N.S., Greenwood, R. and Abdel-Nabi, I.M. (2007) Histopathological Responses of Marine Mussel, Mytilus edulis to Long Term Exposure to Sublethal Level of Lindane and Alrazine. Acta Zoologica Sinica, 53, 899-909.
[17] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2003) For Fish and Shell-Fish Evaluation for (Isla) de vieqmes Bombiong Range Public Health Assessment (PHA).
[18] Bigas, M., Sagrista, E., Gràcia, M., Durfort, M. and Poquet, M. (2000) Occurrence of Heavy Metals and Protozoan Parasites in the Mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Collected in the Western Mediterranean. Exotoxicology and Environmental Reslorotion, 3.
[19] Peng, R., Tang, B., Zeng, Z., Yang, X. and Zhang, Z. (2001) Direct Determination of Pb, Zn and Cd in Environmental and Biological Samples by FAAS. Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis, 21, 77-80.
[20] Rebelo, M.F., Amaral, M.C.R. and Pfeiffer, W.C. (2003) High Zn and Cd Accumulation in the Oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae and Its Relevance as a Sentinel Species. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 46, 1354-1358.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(03)00244-3
[21] Segninide Bravo, M.I. (2003) Influence of Salinity on the Physiological Conditions in Mussels, Pernaperna and Pernaviridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). Revista de Biologia Tropical, 51, 153-158.
[22] Nessim, R.B., Masoud, M.S. and Maximous, N. (2005) Water Characteristics of Alexandria Hot Spots. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 31, 25-37.
[23] Lalitha, K.V. and Surendran, P.K. (2005) Bacterial Profile of Black Clam (Villorita cyprinoids var, Cochinsis) and Clam Harvesting Waters from Vembanad Lake in Kerala (India). Fishery Technology, 42, 183-190.
[24] Zyadah, M. and Serag, M. (2001) Biodiversity and Management in Western Section of El-Salam Canal. Journal of Union of Arab Biologists, 16, 411-426.
[25] El Sikaily, A., Khaled, A. and El-Nemr, A. (2003) Heavy Metals Monitoring Using Bivalves from Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea. Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, 98, 41.
[26] Shakweer, L.M., Shiridah, M., Fahmi, M. and El Fatah, A. (2006) Distribution and Concentrations of Trace Elements along the Mediterranean Coastal Water of Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 32, 95-127.
[27] Otchere, F.A. (2003) Heavy Metals Concentrations and Burden in the Bivalves (Anadara senilia) Senilis, Crassostrea tulipa and Perna perna) from Lagoons in Ghana: Model to Describe Mechanism of Accumulation/Excretion. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2, 280-287.
[28] Blasco, J. and Puppo, J. (2005) Effect of Heavy Metals (Cu, Cd and Pb) on Aspartate and Alanine Aminotransferase in Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C, Pharmacology, Toxicology and Endocrinology, 122, 253-263.
[29] Soazig, L. and Marc, L. (2003) Potential Use of the Levels of the mRNA of a Specific Metallothionein Isoform (MT-20) in Mussel (Mytilus edulis) as a Biomarker of Cadmium Concentration. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 46, 1450-1455. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(03)00283-2
[30] Geffard, O., Budzinski, H. and His, E. (2004) The Effects of Elutriates from PAH and Heavy Metal Polluted Sediments on Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) Embryogenesis, Larval Growth and Bio-Accumulation by the Larvae of Pollutants from Sedimentary Origin. Ecotoxicology, 11, 403-416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021024415695
[31] Rajalakshmi, S. and Mohandas, A. (2005) Copper-Induced Changes in Tissue Enzymes Activity in a Freshwater Mussel. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 62, 140-143.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2005.01.003
[32] Jing, G., Li, Y., Xie, L. and Zhang, R. (2006) Metal Accumulation and Enzyme Activities in Gills and Digestive Gland of Pearl Oyster (Pinctada fucata) Exposed to Copper. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, 144, 184-190.
[33] Marigomez, I., Solo, M., Cajaraville, M.P., Angulo, E. and Giamberini, L. (2002) Celluar and Subcellular Distribution of Metal in Mollusks. Microscopy Research and Technique, 56, 358-392.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.10040
[34] Au, D.W. (2004) The Application of Histo-Cytopathological Biomarker in Marine Pollution Monitoring. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 48, 817-834. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.02.032
[35] Abdel Nabi, I.M., ElShenawy, N.S., Taha, I.A. and Moawad, T.I. (2007) Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Bioconcentration of Reldan and Roubdup by Edible Clam Ruditapes decussatus. Acta Zoologica Sinica, 53, 910-920.
[36] El Shenawy, N.S., Moawd, T.J.S., Mohallal, M.E., Abdel-Nabi, I.M. and Taha, I.A. (2009) Histopathologic Biomarker Response of Clam, Ruditapes decussatus, to Organ Phosphorous Pesticides Reldan and Roundup: Laboratory Study. Ocean Science Journal, 44, 27-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12601-009-0004-5
[37] Choi, H.J., Ahn, I.Y., Lee, Y., Kim, K.W. and Jeong, K. (2003) Histological Responses of the Antarctic Bivalve Lalemula elliptica to a Short-Term Subleathal Level Cd Exposure. Ocean and Polar Research, 25, 147-154.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4217/OPR.2003.25.2.147
[38] Waterman, B.T., Herlyn, M., Daehne, B., Bergmann, S., Meemken, M. and Kolodzey, H. (2008) Pathology and Mass Mortality of Pacific Oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg), in 2005 at the East Frisan Coast, Germany. Journal of Fish Diseases, 31, 621-630. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.2008.00953.x
[39] Bebianno, M.J., Company, F., Serafim, A., Camus, L., Cosson, R.P. and Fiala-Médoni, A. (2005) Antioxidant Systems and Lipid Peroxidation in Bathymodiolus azoricus from Mid-Atlantic Ridge Hydrothermal Vent Fields. Aquatic Toxicology, 75, 354-373.
[40] Tomazelli, A.C., Martinelli, L.A., Avelar, W.E.P., de Camargo, P.B., Fostier, A.H., Ferraz, E.S.B., Krug, F.J. and Junior, D.S. (2003) Biomonitoring of Pb and Cd in Two Impacted Watersheds in Southeast Brazil Using the Freshwater Mussel Anodontites trapesialis (Lamarck, 1819) (Bivalvia: Mycetopodidae) as a Biological Monitor. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 46, 673-684. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132003000400022
[41] Bonneris, E., Giguere, A., Perceval, O., Buronfosse, T., Masson, S., Hare, L. and Campbell, P.G. (2005) Role of Calcium Concretions in Metal Sequestration: Bivalve, Pyganodon grandis.
[42] El Gendy, A.H., Adham, Kh. and Ibrahim, H.M. (2003) Biomarkers of Pollution in the Clam, Scapharca inaequivalvis (Bruguiere, 1789). PH.D. Thesis, Alexandria University, Alexandria.
[43] EEA (European Environment Agency) (1999) State and Pressures of the Marine and Coastal Mediterranean Environment, Summary. EEA, Copenhagen.
[44] NDA Egypt (National Diagnostic Analysis) Egypt (2003) UNEP/MAP, 48.
[45] EEA (European Environment Agency) (2005) Priority Issues in the Mediterranean Environment. EEA Report No 5/2005, Copenhagen.
[46] Geret, F., Jouan, A., Turpin, V., Bebianno, M.J. and Cosson, R.P. (2002) Influence of Metal Exposure on Metallothionein Synthesis and Lipid Peroxidation in Two Bivalve Molluscs: The Oyster (Crassostrea gigas ) and Mussel (Mytilus edulis). Aquatic Living Resources, 15, 61-66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0990-7440(01)01147-0
[47] Grout, J.A. and Levings, C.D. (2001) Effects of Acid Mine Drainage from an Abandoned Copper Mine, Brilannia Mines, Howe Sound, British Columbia, Canada, on Transplanted Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis). Marine Environmental Research, 51, 265-288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0141-1136(00)00104-5
[48] Manduzio, H., Monsinjon, T., Galap, C., Leboulenger, F. and Rocher, B. (2004) Seasonal Variations in Antioxidant Defences in Blue Mussels Mytilus edulis Collected from a Polluted Area: Major Contributions in Gills of an Inducible Isoform of Cu/Zn-Superoxide Dismutase and of Glutathione S-Transferase. Aquatic Toxicology, 70, 83-93.
[49] Znidaric, M.T., Falnoga, I., Skreblin, M. and Turk, V. (2005) Induction of Metallothionein-Like Proteins by Mercury and Distribution of Mercury and Selenium in the Cells of Hepatopancreas and Gill Tissues in Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Biological Trace Element Research, 111, 120-140.
[50] Madkour, H.A. (2005) Distribution and Relationships of Heavy Metals in the Gaint Clam (Tridacna maxima) and Associated Sediments from Different Sites in the Egyptian Red Sea Coast. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 31, 45-59.
[51] Huanxin, W., Lejum, Z. and Presley, B.J. (2000) Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) Tissue and Shell. Environmental Geology, 39, 1216-1226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002540000110
[52] English, T.E. and Storey, K.B. (2003) Freezing and Anoxia Stresses Induce Expression of Metallothionein in the Foot Muscle and Hepatopancreas of the Marine Gastropod Littorina littorea. Journal of Experimental Biology, 206, 2517-2524. http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.00465
[53] Galay Burgos, M. and Rainbow, P.S. (2001) Availability of Cadmium and Zinc from Sewage Sludge to the Flounder, Platichthys flesus, via a Marine Food Chain. Marine Environmental Research, 51, 417-439.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0141-1136(00)00249-X
[54] Gagné, F., Blaise, C., Aoyama, I., Luo, R., Gagnon, C., Couillard, Y., Campbell, P. and Slazar, M. (2002) Biomarker Study of a Municipal Effluent Dispersion Plume in Two Species of Freshwater Mussels. Environmental Toxicology, 17, 149-159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.10046
[55] Radwan, E.H. (2009) Impact of Marine Pollution on Bivalve Pinctada radiata (Leach, 1814). Ph.D. Thesis, Alexandria University, Alexandria.
[56] Fung, C.N., Lam, J.C., Zheng, G.J., Connel, D.W., Monirith, I., Tanabe, S., Richardson, B.J. and Lam, P.K. (2004) Mussel-Based Monitoring of Trace Metal and Organic Contaminants along the East Coast of China Using Perna viridis and Mytilus edulis. Environmental Pollution, 127, 203-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2003.08.007
[57] De-Mora, S., Fowler, S.W., Wyse, E. and Azemard, S. (2004) Distribution of Heavy Metals in Marine Bivalves, Fish and Coastal Sediments in the Gulf and Gulf of Oman. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49, 410-424.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.02.029
[58] Gifford, S., MacFarlane, G.R., O’Connor, W. and Dunstan, R.H. (2006) Effect of the Pollutants Lead, Zinc, Hexadecane and Octocosane on Total and Shell Growth in the Akoya Pearl Oyster, Pinctada imbricata. Journal of Shellfish Research, 25, 159-165.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2983/0730-8000(2006)25[159:EOTPLZ]2.0.CO;2

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.