Cyclic Changes of Lymphatic and Venous Vessels in Human Endometrium


Context: Cyclic changes of endometrial arteries are well established but possible cyclic changes of lymphatic and venous vessels have not been fully documented. There are no published morphological reports to support cyclic changes of endometrial lymphatic and venous vessels. Objective: Using cryosections of human endometrium, this study aimed to unveil possible cyclic changes of lymphatic and venous vessels. We previously reported cyclic changes of lymphatic vessels in human endometrium using D2-40. Design: A total of 16 cases representing menstrual, proliferative and mid and late secretary phase were studied. For Immunocytochemical staining, lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 and von Willebr and factor were used for lymphatic and venous vessels, respectively. We used polyclonal LYVE-1 in this study, which revealed more lymphatic vessels than using D2-40. Results: Residual lymphatic and venous vessels were present in menstrual basalis. In Day 5 - 9 endometrium, there were sparse lymphatic vessels but were numerous growing venous vessels in thin proliferating functionalis. In Day 14 - 22 endometrium, there were scattered lymphatic vessels and numerous venous vessels in functionalis. In Day 25 - 26 endometrium, there were many dilated lymphatic vessels and numerous dilated, disintegrating venous vessels in upper functionalis than lower functionalis. Conclusion: The above findings support that lymphatic vessels are sparse but venous vessels are numerous in early proliferative functionalis. Lymphatic vessels grow from basalis to thin functionalis. In premenstrual phase, lymphatic vessels proliferate from lower to upper functionalis, and both lymphatic and venous vessels disintegrate for shedding by this immunocytochemical study using lymphatic and venous markers. Thus, all lymphatic, venous and arterial vessels undergo menstrual cyclic changes and shed for menstruation.

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Tomita, T. and Mah, K. (2014) Cyclic Changes of Lymphatic and Venous Vessels in Human Endometrium. Open Journal of Pathology, 4, 194-205. doi: 10.4236/ojpathology.2014.44025.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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