Application of Photo-Fenton Process for the Treatment of Kraft Pulp Mill Effluent


The present work evaluated the use of photo-Fenton process for the treatment of kraft pulp mill effluent. The photo-Fenton best operating conditions, such as pH, concentration, and H2O2: Fe2+ ratio were evaluated. The efficiency of the treatment was measured by COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal. The results showed that the optimum pH for the photo-Fenton process was equal to 3. The increase in H2O2 application resulted in an efficiency increase of the photo-Fenton process, although this was not a directly proportional relation. For most cases, the H2O2: Fe2+ proportion of 100:1 yielded the best results for COD removal. Solar radiation was more efficient than artificial UV to the COD removal. During the treatment the organic matter of the effluent was more oxidized than mineralized, showing a higher removal of COD than BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) and TOC (total organic carbon), respectively. So, photo-Fenton process increased the BOD/ COD ration but decreased the BOD/TOC ratio.

Share and Cite:

Rabelo, M. , Bellato, C. , Silva, C. , Ruy, R. , Silva, C. and Nunes, W. (2014) Application of Photo-Fenton Process for the Treatment of Kraft Pulp Mill Effluent. Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science, 4, 483-490. doi: 10.4236/aces.2014.44050.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Titus, M.P., Molina, V.G., Banos, M.A., Gimenez, J. and Santiago, E. (2004) Degradation of Chlorophenols by Means of Advanced Oxidation Processes: A General Review. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 47, 219-256.
[2] Katsumata, H., Kawabe, X., Kaneco, S., Suzuki, T. and Ohta, K. (2004) Degradation of BispHenol A in Water by the Photo-Fenton Reaction. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, 162, 297-305.
[3] Ghaly, M.Y., Hartel, G., Mayer, R. and Roland, H. (2001) Photochemical Oxidation of P-Chlorophenol by UV/H2O2 and Photo-Fenton Process. A Comparative Study. Waste Management, 21, 41-47.
[4] Bigda, R.J. (1995) Consider Fenton’s Chemistry for Wastewater Treatment. Chemical Engineering Progress, 91, 62-66.
[5] Legrini, O., Oliveiros, E. and Braun, M. (1993) Photochemical Processes for Water Treatment. Chemical Reviews, 93, 671-698.
[6] (1998) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 20th Edition, American Public Health Association/American Water Works Association/Water Environment Federation, Wash-
ington DC.
[7] Scan: Scandinavian Pulp, Paper and Board (1994) Scantest Standard. Distribuition: Secretariat, Scandinavina Pulp, Paper and Board Test Committee, Stockholm, August 1994.
[8] Kavitha, V. and Palnivelu, K. (2003) The Role of Ferrous ion in Fenton and Photo-Fenton Processes for the Degradation of Phenol. Chemosphere, 55, 1235-1243.
[9] Pérez, M., Torrades, F., Hortal, J.A.G., Domenech, X. and Peral, J. (2002) Removal of Organic Contaminants in Paper Pulp Treatment Effluents under Fenton and Photo-Fenton Conditions. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 36, 63-74.
[10] Moraes, J.E.F., Silva, D.N., Quina, F.H., Filho, O.C. and Nascimento, C.A.O. (2004) Utilization of Solar Energy in the Photodegradation of Gasoline in Water and of Oil-Field-Produced Water. Environmental Science Technology, 38, 3746-3751.
[11] Rodriguez, M., Sarria, V., Esplugas, S. and Pulgarin, C. (2002) Photo-Fenton Treatment of a Biorecalc-
itrant Wastewater Generated in Textile Activities. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 151, 129-135.
[12] Torrades, F., Pérez, M., Mansilla, H.D. and Peral, J. (2003) Experimental Design of Fenton and Photo-Fenton Reactions for the Treatment of Cellulose Bleaching Effluents. Chemosphere, 53, 1211-1220.
[13] Neyens, E. and Baeyens, J. (2003) A Review of Classic Fenton’s Peroxidation as an Advanced Oxidation Technique. Journal of Hazardous Materials, B98, 33-50.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.