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Primary Separation of Antioxidants (Unsaponifiables) the Wet Biomass Microalgae Chlamydomonas sp. and Production of the Biodiesel

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DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.615108    4,075 Downloads   4,781 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

This work studies the saponification which directs the wet biomass of algae Chlamydomonas sp. like a previous stage to production of biodiesel. This stage allows the obtainment of fatty acids to produce biodiesel, instead of the gross lipid fraction. In addition of the fatty acids, utilizing the same process one can also obtain the fraction unsaponifiable, these are soluble in apolar solvents and contain mainly carotenoids that can take action as antioxidants and photoprotectors, as they reduce the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. The saponification direct and extraction of fatty acids from biomass is faster and reduces the time and cost of operation. The separation of unsaponifiable matter from the biomass humid of microalgae Chlamydomonas sp., was held according to the method AOCS (Ca 6a-40), using extraction Liquid-liquid with hexane as solvent. Subsequently, phase hydroalcoholic or from soap, containing fatty acids, was acidified by addition of H2SO4 and the fatty acids were recovered by the addition of hexane. After acidulation of the soap, necessary for obtaining of the fatty acids was performed the stage of esterification for obtaining of biodiesel. The operating conditions were: molar ratio fatty acid:methanol (1:10), as catalyst 8% H2SO4 calculated in relation to the mass of fatty acid, 200 and reaction time of 90 minutes. The content of methyl esters was 96.8% determined by gas chromatography according to standard EN14103. The quality of biodiesel produced from wet biomass of Chlamydomonas sp. is according to the specification established by standard EN 14214 and RANP No. 14. For the identification of the composition the unsaponifiable fraction was used the method of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The composition of the material unsaponifiable found was of: Carotenoids total (0.76%); Lutein (0.45%); Zeaxanthin (0.07%); α-carotene (0.05%); β-carotene (0.11%); 13 cisβ-carotene (0.05%) and 9-cisβ-carotene (0.03%).

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Díaz, G. , Cruz, Y. , Fortes, M. , Viegas, C. , Carliz, R. , Furtado, N. and Aranda, D. (2014) Primary Separation of Antioxidants (Unsaponifiables) the Wet Biomass Microalgae Chlamydomonas sp. and Production of the Biodiesel. Natural Science, 6, 1210-1218. doi: 10.4236/ns.2014.615108.

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