A Comparative Study on Chemical Composition and Pharmacological Effects of Paecilomyces hepiali and Wild Ophiocordyceps sinensis


This study looked at comparison of chemical components and pharmacological activity between wild Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Paecilomyces hepiali. The chemical components investigated included amino acids, vitamins, dietary elements, protein, lipid, ash, carbohydrates, crude fibre, ergosterol and mannitol. Studies on pharmacological activity included anti-platelet aggregation, inhibitory effect on IL-8 gene expression, anti-mutagenic activity, skin whitening effect and impro- vement activity on human skin texture. The results show that P. hepiali has a larger total content of seven essential amino acids (leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine and valine) than O. sinensis, 8580 mg/100g and 6180 mg/100g respectively. The total content of dietary elements analysed (potassium, magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese and selenium) was also higher in P. hepiali (3135 mg/100g) than that in O. sinensis (2445 mg/100g). The total content of four vitamins (B1, B2, B6 and E) was almost equal for both fungi. Paecilomyces hepiali had more content of protein, lipid, ash, carbohydrate, ergosterol and mannitol than O. sinensis. However, the contents of lipid and ash were not significantly different between the two fungi. The hot water extract of P. hepiali has been shown to have a number of pharmacological effects which include 1) inhibition of aggregation on human platelet, 2) inhibition of IL-8 gene expression, 3) anti-mutage- nic activity, 4) inhibition effect on production of melanin, and 5) improvement on human skin texture. Anti-platelet aggregation effects on human platelet, inhibition of IL-8 gene expression, anti-mutagenic activity and improvement effect on human skin texture were greater in P. hepiali treatments than that in wild O. sinensis.

Share and Cite:

Chioza, A. and Ohga, S. (2014) A Comparative Study on Chemical Composition and Pharmacological Effects of Paecilomyces hepiali and Wild Ophiocordyceps sinensis. Advances in Microbiology, 4, 839-848. doi: 10.4236/aim.2014.412093.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Winkler, D. (2008) Yartsa Gunbu (Cordyceps sinensis) and the Fungal Commodification of the Tibet’s Rural Economy. Economic Botany, 62, 291-305.
[2] Barseghyan, G.S., Holliday, J.C., Price, T.C., Madison, L.M. and Wasser, S.P. (2011) Growth and Cultural-Morphological Characteristics of Vegetative Mycelia of Medicinal Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis G.H. Sung et al. (Ascomycetes) Isolates from Tibetan Plateau (P.R. China). International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 13, 565-581.
[3] Holliday, J. and Cleaver, M. (2008) Medicinal Value of the Caterpillar Fungi Species of the Genus Cordyceps (Fr.) Link (Ascomycetes). A Review. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 10, 219-234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v10.i3.30
[4] Holliday, J., Cleaver, M. and Wasser, S.P. (2005) Cordyceps. Encyclopedia of Dietary Supplements.
[5] Holliday, J.C., Cleaver, P., Loomis-Powers, M. and Patel, D. (2004) Analysis of Quality and Techniques for Hybridization of Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. (Ascomycetes). International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 6, 151-164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v6.i2.60
[6] Liu, Z.-Y., Liang, Z.-Q., Liu, A.-Y., Yao, Y.-J., Hyde, K.D. and Yu, Z.-N. (2002) Molecular Evidence for Teleomorph-Anamorph Connections in Cordyceps Based on ITS-5.8S rDNA Sequences. Mycological Research, 106, 1100-1108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0953756202006378
[7] Liu, Z.-Y., Yao, Y.-J., Liang, Z.Q., Pegler, D.N. and Chase, M.W. (2001) Molecular Evidence for the Anamorph-Teleomorph Connection in Cordyceps sinensis. Mycological Research, 105, 827-832.
[8] Liang, Z.Q. (1991) Anamorphs of Cordyceps and Determination of the Relationship between Anamorph and Teleomorph. Journal of Southwest Agriculture, 4, 1-8.
[9] Chioza, A. and Ohga, S. (2014) Effects of Hot-Water Extract of Paecilomyces hepiali on Hypertension Parameters in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Advances in Microbiology, 4, 436-443.
[10] Chioza, A. and Ohga, S. (2013) Mycelial Growth of Paecilomyces hepiali in Various Agar Media and Yield of Fruit Bodies in Rice Based Media. Advances in Microbiology, 3, 529-536.
[11] Leutenegger, C.M., Alluwaimi, A.M., Smith, W.L., Perani, L. and Cullor, J.S. (2000) Quantitation of Bovine Cytokine mRNA in Milk Cells of Healthy Cattle by Real-Time TaqMan Polymerase Chain Reaction. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 77, 275-287.
[12] Yen, G.C. and Chen, H.Y. (1995) Antioxidant Activity of Various Tea Extracts in Relation to Their Antimutagenicity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 43, 27-32.
[13] Chang, S.T. and Wasser, S.P. (2012) The Role of Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms on Human Welfare with a Pyramid Model for Human Health. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 14, 95-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v14.i2.10
[14] Ulziijargal, E. and Mau, J.L. (2011) Nutrient Compositions of Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Fruiting Bodies and Mycelia. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 13, 343-349.
[15] Leung, P.H., Zhang, Q.X. and Wu, J.Y. (2006) Mycelium Cultivation, Chemical Composition and Antitumor Activity of a Tolypocladium sp. Fungus Isolated from Wild Cordyceps sinensis. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 101, 275-283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.02930.x
[16] Schwartz, S.M., Heinmark, R.L. and Majesky, M.W. (1990) Developmental Mechanisms Underlying Pathology of Arteries. Physiological Reviews, 70, 1177-1209.
[17] Davi, G. and Patrono, C. (2007) Platelet Activation and Atherothrombosis. New England Journal of Medicine, 357, 2482-2494. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra071014
[18] Reyes, R.G., Kalaw, S.P., Dulay, R.M.R., Yoshimoto, H., Miyazawa, N., Seyama, T. and Eguchi, F. (2013) Philippine Native and Exotic Species of Edible Mushrooms Grown on Rice-Straw-Based Formulation Exhibit Nutraceutical Properties. The Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 96, 198-200.
[19] Jose, N., Ajith, T.A. and Janardhanan, K.K. (2004) Methanol Extract of the Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus florida, Inhibits Inflammation and Platelet Aggregation. Phytotherapy Research, 18, 43-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1355
[20] Hyun, K.W., Jeong, S.C., Lee, D.H., Park, J.S. and Lee, J.S. (2006) Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Platelet Aggregation Inhibitory Peptide from the Medicinal Mushroom, Inonotus obliquus. Peptides, 27, 1173-1178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2005.10.005
[21] Baggiolini, M., Loetscher, P. and Moser, B. (1994) Interleukin-8 and the Chemokine Family. International Journal of Immunopharmacology, 17, 103-108.
[22] Zlotnik, A. and Yoshie, O. (2000) Chemokines: A New Classification System and Their Role in Immunity. Immunity, 12, 121-127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80165-X
[23] Shahzad, A., Knapp, M., Lang, I. and Kohler, G. (2010) Interleukin 8 (IL-8)—A Universal Biomarker? International Archives of Medicine, 3, 11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1755-7682-3-11
[24] Kasai, H., Yamaizumi, Z., Wakabayashi, K., Nagao, M., Sugimura, T., Yokoyama, Z., Miyazawa, T. and Nishimura, S. (1980) Structure and Chemical Synthesis of Me-IQ, a Potent Mutagen Isolated from Broiled Fish. Chemistry Letters, 9, 1391-1394. http://dx.doi.org/10.1246/cl.1980.1391
[25] Bashir, M., Kingston, D.G.I., Carman, R.J., van Tassel, R.L. and Wilkins, T.D. (1987) Anaerobic Metabolism of 2-Amino-3-methly-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) by Human Fecal Flora. Mutation Research Letters, 190, 187-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-7992(87)90027-3
[26] Lee, Y.S., Kim, D.W., Kim, S., Choi, H.I., Lee, Y., Kim, C.D., Lee, J.H., Lee, S.D. and Lee, Y.H. (2010) Downregulation of NFAT2 Promotes Melanogenesis in B16 Melanoma Cells. Anatomy and Cell Biology, 43, 303-309. http://dx.doi.org/10.5115/acb.2010.43.4.303
[27] Smit, N., Vicanova, J. and Pavel, S. (2009) The Hunt for Natural Skin Whitening Agents. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 10, 5326-5349. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms10125326
[28] Schrader, K. and Bielfeldt, S. (1991) Comparative Studies of Skin Roughness Measurements by Image Analysis and Several in Vivo Skin Testing Method. Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists, 42, 385-391

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.