Synthesis of Ceramic Pigments ACr2O4 Using the Non-Conventional Method of Co-Precipitation Assisted by Ultrasound and High Energy Milling

DOI: 10.4236/ojinm.2014.44008   PDF   HTML   XML   3,599 Downloads   4,523 Views   Citations


In this research ceramic pigments have been synthesized with crystalline spinel structure and chromium based with a stoichiometry ACr2O4. A was an element with +2 valence metal, in this case, metals were zinc and iron, these pigments have been synthesized by non-conventional methods like the co-precipitation assisted by ultrasound and high milling energy. Pigments were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), spectrophotometry, and colorimetric CIELab method. Results showed that it was possible to obtain a crystallin desired structure at temperatures below 900°C by non-conventional methods. These results showed the advantages of ceramic pigments obtained by alternative routes, because it was possible to have a better control over stoichiometry and colorimetric structure properties. Furthermore, they were obtained at temperatures lower than those used by the traditional ceramic route.

Share and Cite:

Nieves, L. , Baena, O. and Tobón, J. (2014) Synthesis of Ceramic Pigments ACr2O4 Using the Non-Conventional Method of Co-Precipitation Assisted by Ultrasound and High Energy Milling. Open Journal of Inorganic Non-metallic Materials, 4, 54-63. doi: 10.4236/ojinm.2014.44008.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Escribano, P., Carda, J.B. and Cordoncillo, E. (2001) Colección Enciclopedia Cerámica. Vol. 1, FaenzaEditriceIberica, Castellon, 221.
[2] Lorenzi, G., Baldi, G., Benedetto, D.F., Faso, V., Lattanzi, P. and Romanelli, M. (2006) Spectroscopic Study of a Ni-Bearing Gahnite Pigment. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 26, 317-321.
[3] Fernández, A.L. and de Pablo, L. (2002) Formation and the Color Development in Cobalt Spinel Pigments. Pigment and Resin Technology, 31, 350-356.
[4] Sickafus, K.E. and Wills, J.M. (1999) Structure of Spinel. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 82, 3279-3292.
[5] Giannakas, A.E., Ladavos, A.K., Armatas, G.S. and Pomonis, P.J. (2007) Surface Properties, Textural Features and Catalytic Performance for NO2 – CO2 Abatement of Spinels MAl2O4 (Mn, Mg, Co and Zn) Developed by Reverse and Bicontinuous Microemulsión Method. Applied Surface Science, 253, 6969-6979.
[6] Sepelak, V. and Becker, K.D. (2004) Comparison of the Cation Inversion Parameter of the Nanoscale Milled Spinel Ferrites with That of the Quenched Bulk Materials. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 357-377, 861-864.
[7] Llusar, M., Forés, A., Badenes, J.A., Calbo, J., Tena, M.A. and Monrós, G. (2001) Colour Analysis of Some Cobat-Based Blue Pigments. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 21, 1121-1130.
[8] de Souza, L.K.C., Zamian, J.R., da Rocha Filho, G.N., Soledade, L.E.B., dos Santos, I.M.G., Souza, A.G., Scheller, T., Angélica, R.S. and da Costa, C.E.F. (2009) Blue Pigments Based on CoxZn1-xAl2O4 Spinels Synthesized by the Polymeric Precursor Method. Dyes and Pigments, 81, 187-192.
[9] Suzuki, T., Nagai, H., Nohara, M. and Takagi, H. (2007) Melting of Antiferromagnetic Ordering in Spinel Oxide CoAl2O4. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 19, 145265.
[10] Vijaya, J.J., Kennedy, L.J., Sekaran, G., Jeyaraj, B., Nagaraja, K.S. (2007) Effect of Sr Addition on the Humidity Sensing Properties of CoAl2O4 Composites. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 123, 211-217.
[11] Britto, S., Radha, A.V., Ravishankar, N. and Vishnu, K.P. (2007) Solution Decomposition of the Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) of Zn with Al. Solid State Sciences, 9, 279-286.
[12] Chavarriaga, E.A., Betancur, N., Montoya, J.F. and Restrepo, O.J. (2012) Síntesis y caracterización de pigmentos tipo espinela CuCr2O4 a través del método autocombustión en solución. Revista Lasallista de Investigación, 9, 62-70.
[13] Chen, Z., Shi, E., Zheng, Y., Xiao, B. and Zhuang, J. (2003) Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanosized CoAl2O4 on ZnAl2O4 Seed Crystallites. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 86, 1058-1060.
[14] Kakihana, M. (1996) Invited Review “Sol-Gel” Preparation of High Temperature Superconducting Oxides. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 6, 7-55.
[15] Lessing, P.A. (1989) Mixed-Cation Oxide Powders via Polymeric Precursors. American Ceramic Society Bulletin, 68, 1002-1007.
[16] Souza, S.C., Santos, I.M.G., Silva, R.S., Cássia-Santos, M.R., Soledade, L.E.B., Souza, A.G., Lima, S.J.G. and Longo, E. (2005) Influence of pH on Iron Doped Zn2TiO4 Pigments. Journal of Thermal Analysis Calorimetry, 79, 451-454.
[17] Visinescu, D., Paraschiv, C., Ianculescu, A., Jurca, B., Vasile, B. and Carp, O. (2010) The Environmentally Benign Synthesis of Nanosized CoxZn1-xAl2O4 Blue Pigments. Dyes and Pigments, 87, 125-131.
[18] Zhu, C., Martin, S., Ford, R. and Nuhfer, N. (2003) Experimental and Modeling Studies of Coprecipitation as an Attenuation Mechanism for Radionuclides, Metals and Metalloid Mobility. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 5, 5-15.
[19] Kumar, D. and Challa, S.S.R. (2009) Magnetic Nanomaterials. Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim.
[20] Avvakumov, E., Senna, M. and Kosova, N. (2002) Soft Mechanochemical Synthesis: A Basis for New Chemical Technologies. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York.
[21] Cannio, M. and Bondioli, F. (2012) Mechanical Activation of Raw Materials in the Synthesis of Fe2O3-ZrSiO4 Inclusion Pigment. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 32, 643-647.
[22] ASTM E1349-06 Standard Test Method for Reflectance Factor and Color by Spectrophotometry.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.