Spiritual Intelligence and Life Satisfaction among Married and Unmarried Females


The present research was performed to survey a relationship between spiritual intelligence and life satisfaction in two groups, married and unmarried females in the city of Esfahan, Iran. A total of 202 females were selected by the simple random sampling method to participate in this study. It used the King’s Spiritual Intelligence Inventory and Philip Carter’s Life Satisfaction Inventory to measure the variables. The research was designed according to the correlational method. For statistical analysis of data, it used the Pearson’s correlation method, multivariate regression and independent t-test. The results of this study showed a meaningful relation between life satisfaction and spiritual intelligence. There was also a relation between life satisfaction in the two groups of married and unmarried females, however there was no difference in terms of spiritual intelligence in these two groups. The results of regression analysis have shown that spiritual intelligence is predictive of life satisfaction. Further, findings indicated that the rate of life satisfaction in married females is more than in unmarried females.

Share and Cite:

Kalantarkousheh, S. , Nickamal, N. , Amanollahi, Z. and Dehghani, E. (2014) Spiritual Intelligence and Life Satisfaction among Married and Unmarried Females. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 2, 172-177. doi: 10.4236/jss.2014.28024.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Zohar, D. and Marshall, I. (2002) Inteligencia Espiritual.
[2] Selman, V., et al. (2011) Spiritual-Intelligence/-Quotient. College Teaching Methods & Styles Journal (CTMS), 1, 23- 30.
[3] Amram, J.Y. (2009) The Contribution of Emotional and Spiritual Intelligences to Effective Business Leadership. Institute of Transpersonal Psychology.
[4] Nasel, D. (2004) Spiritual Orientation in Relation to Spiritual Intelligence: A Consideration of Tra-ditional Christianity and New Age/Individualistic Spirituality. University of South Australia.
[5] Sisk, D. (2002) Spi-ritual Intelligence: The Tenth Intelligence That Integrates All Other Intelligences. Gifted Education International, 16, 208-213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026142940201600304
[6] Emmons, R.A. (2000) Spirituality and Intelligence: Problems and Prospects. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 10, 57-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327582IJPR1001_6
[7] Sisk, D. (2008) Engaging the Spiritual Intelligence of Gifted Students to Build Global Awareness in the Classroom. Roeper Review, 30, 24-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02783190701836296
[8] Marshall, Z.D. (2000) Spiritual Intelligence: The Ultimate Intel-ligence. New York, Bloomsbury.
[9] Sisk, D.A. and Torrance, E.P. (2001) Spiritual Intelligence: Developing Higher Consciousness. Creative Education Foundation Press.
[10] Wolman, R. (2001) Thinking with Your Soul: Spiritual In-telligence and Why It Matters. Harmony.
[11] King, D.B. (2010) Personal Meaning Production as a Component of Spiritual Intelligence. International Journal of Existential Psychology and Psychotherapy, 3.
[12] Akbarizadeh, F., et al. (2012) Relationship between Nurses’ Spiritual Intelligence with Hardiness and General Health. Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 15.
[13] Haditabar, H., Navabinejad, S. and Ahghar, G. (2012) Effect of Trining on Spiritual Intelligence on Quality Of Life amon Veteran Spouses. Tebe-E-Janbaz, 4.
[14] Deikman, A. (1990) The Wrong Way Home: Uncovering the Patterns of Cult Behavior in American Society. Beacon Press, Boston.
[15] Extremera, N. and Fernández-Berrocal, P. (2006) Emotional Intelligence as Predictor of Mental, Social, and Physical Health in University Students. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 9, 45-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1138741600005965
[16] Seligman, M.E., et al. (2005) Positive Psychology Progress. American Psychologist, 60, 410-421. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.60.5.410
[17] Losoncz, I. (2009) Personality Traits in HILDA1. Australian Social Policy No. 8, 169.
[18] Naderi, F. and Roushani, K. (2011) Relation between Spiritual Intelligence, Social Intelligence and Death Anxiety. Woman and Culture.
[19] Fabricatore, A.N., Handal, P.J. and Fenzel, L.M. (2000) Personal Spirituality as a Moderator of the Relationship between Stressors and Subjective Well-Being. Journal of Psychology and Theology.
[20] Starks, S.H. and Hughey, A.W. (2003) African American Women at Midlife: The Relationship between Spirituality and Life Satisfaction. Affilia, 18, 133-147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886109903018002004
[21] Okulicz-Kozaryn, A. (2010) Religiosity and Life Satisfaction across Nations. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 13, 155-169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13674670903273801

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.