Biology of Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Five Yam Varieties in Storage


Yam is an important staple cash crop, which constitutes 53% of total root and tuber consumption in West Africa. It is a cheap source of carbohydrate in the diets of millions of people worldwide and in tropical West Africa. However, attack by Planococcus citri results in shriveling of the tubers, making them become light and unpalatable. They also lose their market value. The total number of eggs laid, incubation period, developmental period and adult longevity of P. citri on stored yam Disocorea species were studied on five yam varieties namely Dioscorea rotundata var. Pona, Dioscorea rotundata var. Labreko, Dioscorea rotundata var. Muchumudu, Disocorea alata var. Matches and Dioscorea rotundata var. Dente in the laboratory with ambient temperatures of 26.0°C - 30.0°C and relative humidity of 70.0% - 75.0%. The mean life spans of the female insect that is from hatch to death on Dioscorea rotundata var. Pona, Dioscorea rotundata var. Labreko, Dioscorea rotundata var. Muchumudu, Disocorea alata var. Matches and Dioscorea rotundata var. Dente were 62.4, 63.5, 66.8, 67.3 and 69.8 days, respectively and those of the male were 23.8, 25.3, 29.6, 30.2 and 33.5 days, respectively. The adult female lived longer than the adult male. The findings showed that citrus mealybug preferred Dioscorea rotundata var. Pona to the rest of the varieties, as it developed faster and laid more eggs (497.0 eggs) on it than on the other varieties. This implies that citrus mealybug multiplies faster and destroys Dioscorea rotundata var. Pona tubers in storage faster than on the other varieties. Therefore, Dioscorea rotundata var. Dente should be the preferred yam for long-term storage.

Share and Cite:

Asiedu, E. , Afun, J. and Kwoseh, C. (2014) Biology of Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Five Yam Varieties in Storage. Advances in Entomology, 2, 167-175. doi: 10.4236/ae.2014.24025.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Williams, D.J. and Watson, G.W. (1988) The Scale Insects of the Tropical South Pacific Region. Part 2. The Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) CAB International, Wallingford, 257 p.
[2] Cox, J.M. (1989) The Mealybug Genus Planococcus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) Bulletin British Museum (Natural History). Entomology, 58, 1-78.
[3] Ortu, R., Pollini, K. and Kobbe, C. (2002) Mealybugs Identification and Behavior. Aspen Publishers Inc., Gathersburg, 210 p.
[4] Coffee Board Research Department (1984) Mealybug. Thirty-Sixth Annual Detailed Technical Report 1982-1983, Noresh Traders, Printing Division, Chikmagalur, 66-68.
[5] Nkrumah, E.R. (2001) Invasive Mealybugs of West Africa. The City Publishers Ltd, Accra, 130 p.
[6] Blumberg, D., Klein, M. and Mendel, Z. (1995) Response by Encapsulation of Four Mealybug Species (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) to Parasitism by Anagyrus pesudococci. Phytoparasitica, 23, 157-163.
[7] Heinz, K.M., Driesche, R.G.V. and Parrella, M.P. (2004) Bio-Control in Protected Culture. Ball Publishing, Batavia, 552 p.
[8] Smith, D., Beattie, G.A.C. and Broadley, R. (1997) Citrus Pests and Their Natural Enemies: Integrated Pest Management in Australia, Queensland. Department of Primary Industries Series Q197030, 272 p.
[9] Dumont, K.L. and Vernier, W.K. (2010) Yam Production in Nigeria. Anthem Press, London, 234 p.
[10] Hahn, S.K. Osiru, D.S.O., Akoroda, M.O. and Otoo, J.A. (1987) Yam Production and Its Future Prospects. Outlook on Agriculture, 16, 105-110.
[11] Orkwor, G.C., Asiedu, R. and Ekanayake, I.J. (1998) Food Yams Advances in Research. IITA and NRCRI, Ibadan, 249 p.
[12] Braimah, H.V., Anchirinah, M. and Adu-Mensah, J. (2007) Yam Pests in the Ashanti and Brong Ahafo Regions of Ghana: A Study of Farmers’ Indigenous Technical Knowledge and Control Practices. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science, 40, 33-42.
[13] Obeng, O.D. (2007) Major Pests of Food and Selected Fruit and Industrial Crops in West Africa. The City Publishers Ltd., Accra, 198 p.
[14] Okigbo, J.W. (2008) Mealybugs in the Tropics. Apple Academic Press, Oakville, 138 p.
[15] Dobie, P. (1974) The Laboratory Assessment of the Inherent Susceptibility of Maize Varieties to Post-Harvest Infestation by Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Journal of Stored Product Research, 10, 183-197.
[16] Woets, J. and Lenteren, J.C. (1976) The Parasite-Host Relationship between Encarsia formosa and Trialeurodes vaporariorum: The Influence of the Host Plant on the Green House Whitefly and Its Parasite Encarsia formosa. Bulletin of Crop Protection Society, 4, 151-164.
[17] Persad, A. and Khan, A. (2007) Effects of Four Host Plants on Biological Parameters of Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) and Efficacy of Anagyrus kamali Moursi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Journal of Plant Protection Research, 47, 35-42.
[18] Sakurai, H., Yoshida, N., Kobayashi, C. and Taheda, S. (1991) Effect of Temperature and Day Length on Oviposition and Growth of Lady Bird Beetle, Coccinella septumpunctata. Research Bulletin of Faculty of Agriculture Gifu University, 56, 45-50.
[19] Metspalu, L., Hiiesaar, K., Joudu, J. and Kuusik, A. (2003) Influence of Food on the Growth, Development and Hibernation of Large White Butterfly (Pieris brassicae). Agronomy Research, 1, 85-92.
[20] Hogendrop, B.K., Cloyd, R.A. and Swiader, J.M. (2006) Effect of Nitrogen Fertility on Reproduction and Development of Citrus Mealybug, Planococcus citri Risso (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), Feeding on Two Colors of Coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides L. Codd. Environmental Entomology, 35, 201-211.
[21] Yang, J. and Sadof, C. (1997) Variation in the Life History of the Citrus Mealybug Parasitoid (Leptomastix dactylopii) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) on Three Varieties of Coleus blumei. Environmental Entomology, 26, 10-15.
[22] Bradbury, J.H. and Holloway, W.D. (1988) Chemistry of Tropical Root Crops. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, 101-119.
[23] Muzac-Tucker, I., Asemota, H.N. and Ahmad, M.H. (1993) Biochemical Composition and Storage of Jamai Can Yams (Dioscorea sp). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 62, 219-224.
[24] Opara, L.U. (1999) Yam Storage. In: Bakker-Arkema, F.W., Ed., CIGR Handbook of Agricultural Engineering 171 Volume IV Agro Processing, The American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, 182-214.
[25] Osagie, A.U. (1992) The Yam in Storage. Post Harvest Research Unit, University of Benin, Benin, 19-30.
[26] Goldasteh, S., Talebi, A.A., Fathipour, Y., Ostovan, H., Zamani, A. and Shoushtari, R.V. (2009) Effect of Temperature on Life History and Population Growth Parameters of Planococcus citri (Homoptera, Pseudococcidae) on Coleus [Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd.]. Archives of Biological Science Belgrade, 61, 329-336.
[27] Cloyd, R.A. (1999) Effects of Plant Architecture on the Attack Rate of Leptomastix dactylopii (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a Parasitoid of the Citrus Mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Ph.D. Thesis, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 59 p.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.