Design and Simulation of a Secure and Robust Underwater Acoustic Communication System in the Persian Gulf
Abdollah Doosti Aref, Mohammad Javad Jannati, Vahid Tabataba Vakili
DOI: 10.4236/cn.2011.32012   PDF   HTML     5,582 Downloads   11,409 Views   Citations


In recent years, underwater acoustic (UWA) communications have received much attention as their applications have begun to shift from military toward commercial. Digital communications through UWA channels differ substantially from those in other media, such as radio channels, due to severe signal degradations caused by multipath propagation and high temporal and spatial variability of the channel conditions. This paper describes a project designed, based on the results obtained from extensive laboratory and field experiments on sound speed profile in different depths of the Persian Gulf, to investigate and demonstrate an underwater acoustic communication system. Transmitted data are acoustic signals to which for more safety in transmission and low frequency bandwidth, Rivest cipher cryptography algorithm and linear prediction coding are applied, respectively. In transmitter, Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) signaling is employed to make efficient use of the available channel bandwidth. In the channel, a comprehensive model for short-range shallow water multipath acoustic channel is presented. The mathematical modeling of the multi-path effects is based on the ray tracing and the image method. Also, the attenuations due to wave scatterings at the surface and their bottom reflections are accounted for. In addition, we consider the loss due to the frequency absorption of different materials and the presence of ambient noises such as the sea state noise, shipping noise, thermal noise and turbulences. In the receiver, to overcome the difficulties of inter symbol interference, adaptive equalization using Decision Feedback Equalizer (DFE) is applied.

Share and Cite:

A. Aref, M. Jannati and V. Vakili, "Design and Simulation of a Secure and Robust Underwater Acoustic Communication System in the Persian Gulf," Communications and Network, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2011, pp. 99-112. doi: 10.4236/cn.2011.32012.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] M. Stojanovic, “Recent Advances in High-Speed Under- water Acoustic Communications,” IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 121, No. 2, 1996, pp. 125-136. doi:10.1109/48.486787
[2] M. Stojanovic, J. A. Catipovic and J. G. Proakis, “Reduced- Complexity Multichannel Processing of Underwater Acoustic Communication Signals,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vo1. 98, No. 2, 1995, pp. 961-972.
[3] M. Johnson, L. Freitag and M. Stojanovic, “Efficient Equalizer Update Algorithms for Acoustic Communi- cation Channels of Varying Complexity,” Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS197 Conference, Halifax, Nova Scotia, October 1997, pp. 580-585.
[4] P. Bragard and G. Jourdain, “A Fast Self-Optimized LMS Algorithm For Nonstationary Identification Application to Underwater Equalization,” Proceedings of ICASSP’90, Albuquerque, 3-6 April, 1990, pp. 1425-1428.
[5] B. Geller, V. Capellano, J. M. Brossier, A. Essebar and G. Jourdain, “Equalizer for Video Rate Transmission in Multipath Underwater Communications,” IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1996, pp. 150- 155. doi:10.1109/48.486790
[6] M. Kocic, D. Brady and M. Stojanovic, “Sparse Equalization for Real-Time Digital Underwater Acoustic Communications,” Proceedings of IEEE Oceans’95, San Diego, 9-12 October 1995, pp. 1417-1421.
[7] A. S. Spanias, “Speech Coding: Tutorial Review,” Pro- ceedings of IEEE, Vol. 82, No. 10, 1994, pp. 1541-1582. doi:10.1109/5.326413
[8] T. Painter and A. S. Spanias, “Perceptual Coding of Digital Audio,” Proceedings of IEEE, Vol. 88, No. 4, 2002, pp. 451-515. doi:10.1109/5.842996
[9] M. Y. Rhee, “Internet Security,’’ John Wiley & Sons Ltd, New York, 2003.
[10] B. Stephen, “Error Control Systems for Digital Com- munication and Storage,’’ Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 1995.
[11] M. C. Jeruchim, P. Balaban and K. S. Shanmugan, “Si- mulation of Communication Systems,’’ Plenum Press, New York, 1992.
[12] K. O. Emery, “Sediments and Water of the Persian Gulf,” AAPG Bull, Vol. 40, 1956, pp. 2354-2383.
[13] E. Seibold and J. Ulrich, “Zur Bodengestalt des Nord- westlichen Gulfs von Oman,” Meteor Forsch Er- gebnisses, Reihe C, Vol. 3, 1970, pp. 1-14.
[14] R. M. Reynolds, “Physical Oceanography of the Gulf, Strait of Hormuz, and the Gulf of Oman,” Results from the Mt Mitchell Expedition, Marin Pollution Bulltin, Vol. 27, 1993, pp. 35-59.
[15] W. E. Johns, F. Yao, D. B. Olson, S. A. Josey, J. P Grist, and D. A. Smeed, “Observations of Seasonal Exchange through the Straits of Hormuz and the Inferred Freshwater Budgets of the Persian Gulf,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 108, No. 12, 2003, p. 3391. doi:10.1029/2003JC001881
[16] S. A. Swift and A. S. Bower, “Formation and Circulation of Dense Water in the Persian/Arabian Gulf,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 108, No. 1, 2003, p. 3004. doi:10.1029/2002JC001360
[17] M. Sadrinasab and K. Ampf, “Three-Dimensional Flushing Times of the Persian Gulf,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vo. 31, No. L24301, 2004, pp. 252-263.
[18] M. Sadrinasab and K. Kenarkoohi, “Numerical Modelling of Sound Velocity Profile in Different Layers in the Persian Gulf,” Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 25, No. L65255, 2009, pp. 232-239.
[19] A. D. Aref, “Survey Underwater Acoustic Communication with Design and Simulation of an Underwater Acoustic Communication System in the Persian Gulf,” MSc Thesis, Malek-e Ashtar Industrial University, Tehran, 2010.
[20] H. Medwin and C. S. Clay, “Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography,” Academic Press, San Diego, 1998, pp. 220-228.
[21] A. Falahati, B. Woodward and S. C. Bateman, “Under- water Acoustic Channel Models For 4800 b/s QPSK Signals,” IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1991, pp. 12-20. doi:10.1109/48.64881
[22] R. J. Urick, “Ambient Noise in the Sea,” 3rd Edition, Eninsula Publishing, Newport Beach, 1984, pp. 155-205.
[23] L. M. Brekhovskikh and Yu. P. Lysanov, “ Fundamentals of Ocean Acoustics,” 2nd Edition, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999, pp. 130-155.
[24] K. C. Hegewisch, N. R. Cerruti and S. Tomsovic, “Ocean Acoustic Wave Propagation and Ray Method Cor- Respondence: Internal Wave Fine Structure,” The Journ- al of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 114, No. 4, 2003, p. 2428.
[25] A. D. Are and B. A. Arand, “Design and Simulation of a New Model for Shallow Water Multipath Acoustic Channel in the Persian Gulf,” In: 5th International Symposium on Telecommunications, Kish Island, 4-6 December, 2010.
[26] J. P. Gomes and V. Barroso, “SDR Underwater Acoustic Modem,” Ph.D Thesis, Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica, Lisboa, April 2005.
[27] J. G. Proakis, M. Stojanovic and J. Catipovic, “Phase Coherent Digital Communications for Underwater Acoustic Communications,” IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 19, No. 1, January 1994, pp. 100-111. doi:10.1109/48.289455
[28] A. Masoomzadeh-Fard and S. Pasupathy, “Nonlinear Equalization of Multipath Fading Channels with Nonco- Herent Demodulation,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1996, pp. 512-520. doi:10.1109/49.490236
[29] M. Stojanovic, J. A. Catipovic and J. G. Proakis, “Phase Coherent Digital Communications for Underwater Acoustic Channels,” IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 19, No. 1, 1994, pp. 100-111. doi:10.1109/48.289455
[30] J. G. Proakis, “Digital Communications,” 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill, Boston, 1995.

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.