Energy Audit Methodology of Sponge Iron Manufacturing Units Using DRI Process
Avijit Choudhury1*
1Enfragy Solutions, New Delhi, India.
DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2014.33005   PDF    HTML     8,180 Downloads   10,151 Views   Citations


Conducting complete energy audit (both process and utility) of a sponge iron unit is challenging as there is no laid down procedure to audit the process side. Further, the average heat to power ratio (kWth/kWe) of sponge iron plants ranges from (25:1) to (31:1). This shows that the manufacturing process mostly uses thermal energy and application of electrical energy is insignificant. The main & only source of thermal energy is coal and the entire coal is fed to the rotary kiln. Therefore we find that “Kiln” is the “Black-Box” of this industry and the success of energy efficiency is hidden in the kiln process chemistry. This article tries to establish detailed energy audit methodology of sponge iron manufacturing process or kiln operation with a view to finding out major energy saving potential of the unit. In the research work we find that it is the incomplete reaction of coal that causes the major energy inefficiency in the process. Substantial amount of un-reacted carbon comes out with the char (by-product) which has virtually zero commercial value. The article also puts a question mark on the justification of using high-grade imported coal in such energy inefficient industries.

Share and Cite:

Choudhury, A. (2014) Energy Audit Methodology of Sponge Iron Manufacturing Units Using DRI Process. Open Journal of Energy Efficiency, 3, 41-49. doi: 10.4236/ojee.2014.33005.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Choudhury, A. (2014) Energy Audit Report of Tata Sponge Iron Company Limited.
[2] Choudhury, A. (2014) Energy Audit Report of Mahendra Sponge & Power Limited.
[3] Rakshit, P.C. Thermodynamics. Publisher, publisher’s location.
[4] Hougen, O.A., Watson, K.M. and Ragatz, R.A. (1954) Chemical Process Principal. John Wiley & Sons Inc., Hoboken.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.