Are There Undiagnosed TBE-, Herpes- or Enteroviral Infections among Children Being Evaluated for Lyme Neuroborreliosis?
Barbro H. Skogman, Pia Forsberg, Sirkka Vene, Britt Akerlind
DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2014.43020   PDF    HTML   XML   2,607 Downloads   3,117 Views  


Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in children is a challenging diagnosis based on clinical manifestations and laboratory findings. The aim of this study was to investigate whether herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 or 2, varicella zoster virus (VZV), enterovirus or tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) could be identified in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or serum from children being evaluated for LNB, in order to elucidate whether such infectious diseases may be missed by the clinician. Methods: Ninety-nine pediatric patients (n = 99) were retrospectively included from a previous study on LNB in southeast of Sweden. They had been diagnosed as “Possible LNB” or “Not determined” due to negative Borrelia antibody index in CSF. Routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were used for detection of herpes viral RNA or enteroviral DNA in CSF. An ELISA assay was used for detection of anti-TBEV antibodies (IgM and IgG) in serum. Results: One patient showed elevated anti-TBEV IgM and IgG antibodies in serum, indicating a current TBE infection. No positive PCR reactions for HSV 1 or 2, VZV or enterovirus were detected in CSF from any of the patients. In conclusion, our results suggest that undiagnosed herpes- or enteroviral infections are unlikely to explain CNS symptoms in children being evaluated for LNB, whereas missed TBE infections may occur. TBEV serology should be included when evaluating children for LNB in TBE endemic areas.

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Skogman, B. , Forsberg, P. , Vene, S. and Akerlind, B. (2014) Are There Undiagnosed TBE-, Herpes- or Enteroviral Infections among Children Being Evaluated for Lyme Neuroborreliosis?. Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics, 4, 123-129. doi: 10.4236/ojcd.2014.43020.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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