A Note on the Determinants of Recent Pupil Achievement


This analysis focuses on the average state scores in 2013 for reading and mathematics of fourth and eighth grade pupils taking the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Of the 19 possible determinants that are tested, two are most important: average pupil/teacher ratios in the state and the share of pupils coming from low income families who are eligible for free or low cost lunches. Most of the other variables focusing on pupil and school characteristics or on state policies such as expenditures on education, length of school year, or required attendance at kindergartens did not have a statistically significant impact.

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Pryor, F. (2014) A Note on the Determinants of Recent Pupil Achievement. Creative Education, 5, 1265-1268. doi: 10.4236/ce.2014.514143.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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[4] Schofield, L. S., Junker, B. J., Taylor, L., & Black, D. (2014). Predictive Inference Using Latent Variables with Covariates. Psychometrika. (Forthcoming)

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