Formulation, Preparation and Evaluation of Low-Cost Extrude Products Based on Cereals and Pulses


Protein-energy malnutrition among children is the major health challenges and it may be related to low nutritional quality of traditional complementary foods and high cost of quality protein-based complementary foods. The aim of this study was formulation, preparation and evaluation of low-cost extruded products based on cereals and pulses. Composite flours were prepared using cereals and pulses, then formulated and extruded by a twin screw extruder in Osmania University, Hyderabad, India. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results showed: the protein contents of extruded formulas B, D and F were in the highest values. Carbohydrate in the extruded formula A was significantly higher than others. The lowest amount of ash and crude fiber were observed in the formula A. Content of energy in the extruded formulas E, F and C was higher; mean (SD) of Fe content in the extruded formula B, D and F was in the higher ranks among others. Calcium content in the extruded formulas C, E and F was in the highest amounts. Magnesium content in the extruded formulas B, D and F was higher than others. Cu content in the extruded formula C, D, B and F was higher than others. Manganese content in the extruded formulas B, C and F, and zinc content in the formulas B, D and F were higher than others. Tap density showed the lowest amount in the formula B, D and F, while their bulk density was higher. WHC was in the highest amount in the extruded formula A, while WSI in the extruded formula B, D and followed by F was in the highest amount. The mean scores of sensory evaluation of extruded products F showed that this combination has significantly better colour, flavour, texture and overall acceptability than others.

Share and Cite:

Shadan, M. , Waghray, K. and Khoushabi, F. (2014) Formulation, Preparation and Evaluation of Low-Cost Extrude Products Based on Cereals and Pulses. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 5, 1333-1340. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.514145.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Brown, K.H. (2003) Diarrhea and Malnutrition. Journal of Nutrition, 133, 328S-332S.
[2] FAO (2001) Targeting for Nutrition Improvement. Resources for Advancing Well Being. Food and Nutrition Division, Rome.
[3] Ijarotimi, O.S. and Keshinro, O.O. (2012) Formulation and Nutritional Quality of Infant Formula Produced from Germinated Popcorn, Bambara Groundnut and African Locust Bean Flour. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, 1, 1358-1388.
[4] Nemer, L., Gelband, H. and Jha, P. (2001) Commission on Macroeconomics and Health. The Evidence Base for Interventions to Reduce Malnutrition in Children under Five and School Age Children in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. CMH Working Paper No WG5, World Health Organization, Geneva, 11.
[5] Muller, O., Garenne, M., Kouyate, B. and Becher, H. (2003) The Association between Protein-Energy Malnutrition, Malaria Morbidity and All-Cause Mortality in West African Children. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 8, 507-511.
[6] FAO (2004) Undernourishment around the World. In: The State of Food Insecurity in the World, FAO, Rome.
[7] Federal Ministry of Health, Nutrition Division (2005) Policy—National Policy on Infant and Young Child Feeding in Nigeria.
[8] Black, R.E., Morris, S.S. and Bryce, J. (2003) Where and Why Are 10 Million Children Dying Every Year? Lancet, 361, 2226-2234.
[9] Alozie, Y.E., Iyam, M.A., Lawal, O., Udofla, U. and Ani, I.F. (2009) Utilization of Bambara Ground Flour Blends in Bread Produce Production. Journal of Food Technology, 7, 111-114.
[10] Eka, B.E., Abbey, B.W. and Akaninwor, J.O. (2010) Nutritional Evaluation of Some Traditional Weaning Foods from Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 25, 65-72.
[11] Bhattacharya, J., Currie, J. and Haider, S. (2004) Poverty, Food Insecurity, and Nutritional Outcomes in Children and Adults. Journal Health Economic, 23, 839-862.
[12] Anigo, K.M., Ameh, D.A., Ibrahim, S. and Danbauchi, S.S. (2007) Microbiological Analyses of Commonly Used Local Complementary Foods in North Western Nigeria. Journal of Medical Sciences, 7, 875-879.
[13] Muhimbula, H.S., Issa-Zacharia, A. and Kinabo, J. (2011) Formulation and Sensory Evaluation of Complementary Foods from Local, Cheap and Readily Available Cereals and Legumes in Iringa, Tanzania. African Journal of Food Science, 5, 26-31.
[14] Jean, I.J., Work. R, Camire, E., Briggs, J., Barnett, A.H. and Bushway, A.A. (1996) Selected Properties of Extruded Potato and Chicken Meat. Journal of Food Sciences, 61, 783-789.
[15] Toft, G. (1979) Snack Foods: Continuous Processing Techniques. Cereal Foods World, 24, 142-143.
[16] Stojceska, V., Ainsworth, P., Plunkett, A., Ibanoglu, E. and Ibanoglu, S. (2008) Cauliflower By-Products as a New Source of Dietary Fibre, Antioxidants and Proteins in Cereal Based Ready-to-Eat Expanded Snacks. Journal of Food Engineering, 87, 554-563.
[17] Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (2005) Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International. 18th Edition, Gaithersburg.
[18] Udo, E.J. and Oguwele, J.A. (1986) Laboratory Manual for the Analysis of Soil, Plants and Water Samples. 3rd Edition, Department of Crop Production, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, 131-152.
[19] Anderson, R.A. (1982) Water Absorption and Solubility and Amylograph Characteristics of Roll-Cooked Small Grain Products. Cereal Chemistry, 59, 265-269.
[20] Deshpande, H.W. and Poshadri, A. (2011) Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Extruded Snacks Prepared from Foxtail Millet Based Composite Flours. International Food Research Journal, 18, 751-756.
[21] Meilgaard, M., Civille, G.V. and Carr, B.T. (1999) Sensory Evaluation Techniques. 3rd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton.
[22] Camire, M.E., Camire, A. and Krumhar, K. (1990) Chemical and Nutritional Changes in Foods during Extrusion. CRC Reviews Food Science Nutrition, 30, 35-45.
[23] Ruiz-Ruiz, J., Martínez-Ayala, A., Drago, S.R., González, R.J., Betancur-Ancona, D. and Chel-Guerrero, L. (2008) Extrusion of a Hard-to-Cook Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Quality Protein Maize (Zea mays L.) Flour Bend. Food Science and Technology, 41, 99-807.
[24] Singh, R., Singh, G. and Chauhan, G.S. (1996) Effect of Incorporation of Defatted Soy Flour on the Quality of Biscuits. Food Science and Technology, 33, 355-357.
[25] Gamalth, S. and Ganesharanee, R. (2009) Extruded Products with Fenugreek (Trigonellagraecium) Chick Pea and Rice: Physical Properties, Sensory Acceptability and Glycemic Index. Journal of Food Engineering, 90, 45-52.
[26] Colonna, P., Tayeb, J. and Mercier, C. (1989) Extrusion Cooking of Starch and Starchy Products. In: Mercier, C., Linko, C.P. and Harper, J.M., Eds., Extrusion Cooking, American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc., St. Paul, 247-319.
[27] Ding, Q., Ainsworth, B., Plonkell, A., Tucker, G. and Marson, H. (2005) The Effect of Extrusion Conditions on the Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Rice-Based Expanded Snacks. Journal of Food Engineering, 66, 283-289.
[28] Anderson, R.A., Conway, H.F. and Peplinski, A.J. (1970) Gelatinization of Corn Grits by Roll and Extrusion Cooking. Starch-Stärke, 22, 130-135.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.