Umbrella with Ultraviolet Radiation Protection


Background: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) causes harm to the eye and skin in human. There are many ways to protect one from UVR. Umbrella is widely used due to its convenience as well as its ability to protect one from rain. However, there are limited numbers of studies on UVR protection of different types of umbrellas. Objective of study: To determine UVR protection efficacy of different umbrella designs. Methods: The experimental study was performed on five sunny days. Six manikins were placed in an open area, five of which were equipped with five different types of black canopy umbrellas. One manikin was placed without an umbrella as a control sample. Polysulfone film badges were attached in six different areas in each manikin for measuring the UVR from 10 am - 3 pm Results: All types of umbrellas provides 64.5% - 92.3% UVR photo protection efficacy. An umbrella with UV-filter coating on the inner surface provides maximum UVR photo protection efficacy. However, UVR proto protection efficacies of an umbrella with UV-filter coating on the inner surface and one with UV-filter coating on the outer surface and one without UV-filter coating are not statistically significant (p-value = 0.37). Umbrellas with a diameter of 122 cm and 152 cm provide comparable UVR photo protection efficacy while an umbrella with a diameter of 112 cm provides the least UVR photo protection efficacy. However, UVR photo protection efficacies of umbrellas with different diameter are not statistically significant (p-value = 0.36). The area of the body that received the most UVR photo protection is the forehead which is statistically significant when compared with other areas of the body (p-value < 0.001). The areas of the body that received the least UVR photo protection are the left ear and the back of the neck, which are statistically significant when compared with other areas of the body (p-value < 0.001). Conclusion: All types of umbrellas provide UVR photo protection efficacy. The study shows that umbrellas with different canvas material including both the UV-filter coating and different diameter of umbrellas could effectively protect the user from UVR without significant group difference in this study.

Share and Cite:

Vejakupta, K. and Udompataikul, M. (2014) Umbrella with Ultraviolet Radiation Protection. Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications, 4, 228-233. doi: 10.4236/jcdsa.2014.44031.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Kochevar, I.E., Taylor, C.R. and Krutmann, J. (2012) Fundamental of Cutaneous Photobiology and Photoimmunology. In: Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine, The McGraw Hill Companies, New York, 1031-1048.
[2] Rünger, T.M. (2012) Ultraviolet Light. In: Dermatology, Elsevier Limited, China, 1455-1465.
[3] Vandergriff, T. and Bergstresser, P. (2012) Abnormal Response to Ultraviolet Radiation: Idiopathic, Problably Immunologic, and Photoexacerbated. In: Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine, The McGraw Hill Companies, New York, 1049-1065.
[4] Tuchinda, C., Srivannaboon, S. and Lim, H.W. (2006) Photoprotection by Window Glass, Automobile Glass and Sunglasses. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 54, 845-854.
[5] Hatch, K.L. and Osterwalder, U. (2006) Garments as Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Screening Materials. Dermatologic Clinics, 24, 85-100.
[6] Diffey, B.L. and Cheeseman, J. (1992) Sun Protection with Hats. British Journal of Dermatology, 127, 10-12.
[7] Cheng, S., Lian, S., Hao, Y., et al. (2010) Sun-Exposure Knowledge and Protection Behavior in a North Chinese Population: A Questionnaire-Based Study. Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine, 26, 177-181.
[8] McMichael, J.R., Veledar, E. and Chen, S.C. (2013) UV Radiation Protection by Handheld Umbrellas. JAMA Dermatology, 149, 757-758.
[9] Turnbull, D.J. and Parisi, A.V. (2003) Spectral UV in Public Shade Settings. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 69, 13-19.
[10] Turnbull, D.J. and Parisi, A.V. (2005) Increasing the Ultraviolet Protection Provided by Shade Structures. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 78, 61-67.
[11] Utrillas, M.P., Martinez-Lozano, J.A. and Nunez, M. (2012) Ultraviolet Radiation Protection by Beach Umbrella. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 86, 449-456.
[12] Grifoni, D., Carreras, G., Sabatini, F. and Zipoli, G. (2005) UV Hazard on a Summer’s Day under Mediterranean Conditions, and the Protective Role of a Beach Umbrella. International Journal of Biometeorology, 50, 75-82.
[13] Diffey, B.L. (2002) Sources and Measurement of Ultraviolet. Methods, 28, 4-13.
[14] Sliney, D.H. (1995) UV Radiation Ocular Exposure Dosimetry. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 31, 61-77.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.