Green Fertilization Enhances the Photosynthetic Performance and the Growth of Leguminous Trees for Restoration Plantation in Central Amazon


The leguminous tree species Dipteryx odorata (Aubl.) Willd. and Inga edulis Mart. were grown in the field to reforest a degraded area. To investigate the photosynthetic responses and the initial growth of Amazonian forest species under fertilization, the study species were subjected to different treatments: T1 = unfertilized-control, T2 = chemical fertilization, T3 = green fertilization and T4 = green and chemical fertilization. D. odorata showed the highest absolute growth rates in height under treatments T4 (10.2 cm·month-1) and T2 (12.2 cm·month-1). I. edulis exhibited the best performance for this same parameter in T4 (23.0 cm·month-1). The highest photosynthesis values (Pn) for both D. odorata (13.1 μmol·m-2·s-1) and I. edulis (20.6 μmol·m-2·s-1) were found in T4. The two species also showed the highest performance index values (PIABS) under T4 (D. odorata = 2.9 and I. edulis = 5.2). Our results suggest that the combination of green and chemical fertilization was the most effective of the four treatments evaluated for improving the photosynthetic performance and the growth of both species during the initial establishment of the species in a degraded area.

Share and Cite:

Jaquetti, R. , Carvalho Gonçalves, J. , Silva Ferraz, J. , Ferreira, M. , Santos Junior, U. and Lacerda, C. (2014) Green Fertilization Enhances the Photosynthetic Performance and the Growth of Leguminous Trees for Restoration Plantation in Central Amazon. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 2497-2508. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.516264.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Davidson, E.A., Araujo, A.C., Artaxo, P., Balch, J.K., Brown, I.F., Bustamante, M.M.C., Coe, M.T., Defries, R.S., Keller, M., Longo, M., Munger, J.W., Schroeder, W., Soares-Filho, B.S., Souza Jr., C.M. and Wofsy, S.C. (2012) Amazon Basin in Transition. Nature, 481, 321-328.
[2] Parrotta, J.A., Turnbull, J.W. and Jones, N. (1997) Catalyzing Native Forest Regeneration on Degraded Tropical Lands. Forest Ecology and Management, 99, 1-7.
[3] Gonçalves, J.F.C. and Santos Jr., U.M. (2005) Utilization of the Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Technique as a Tool for Selecting Tolerant Species to Environments of High Irradiance. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 17, 307-313.
[4] Santos Jr., U.M., Gonçalves, J.F.C. and Feldpausch, T.R. (2006) Growth, Leaf Nutrient Concetration and Photosynthetic Nutrient Use Efficiency in Tropical Tree Species Planted in Degraded Areas in Central Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management, 226, 299-309.
[5] Ciccarese, L., Mattsson, A. and Pettenella, D. (2012) Ecosystem Services from Forest Restoration: Thinking Ahead. New Forests, 43, 543-560.
[6] Silva, C.E.M., Gonçalves, J.F.C. and Feldpausch, T.R. (2008) Water-Use Efficiency of Trees Species Following Calcium and Phosphorus Application on an Abandoned Pasture, Central Amazonia, Brazil. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 64, 189-195.
[7] Gonçalves, J.F.C., Marenco, R.A. and Vieira, G. (2001) Concentration of Photosynthetic Pigments and Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Mahogany and Tonka Bean under Two Light Environments. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 13, 149-157.
[8] Müller, P., Li, X. and Niyogi, K.K. (2001) Non-Photochemical Quenching. A Response to Excess Light Energy. Plant Physiology, 125, 1558-1566.
[9] Cakmak, I. (2005) The Role of Potassium in Alleviating Detrimental Effects of Abiotic Stresses in Plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 168, 521-530.
[10] Sunkar, R., Chinnusamy, V., Zhu, J. and Zhu, J. (2007) Small RNAs as Big Players in Plant Abiotic Stress Responses and Nutrient Deprivation. Trends in Plant Science, 12, 301-309.
[11] Ashraf, M. and Harris, P.J.C. (2013) Photosynthesis under Stressful Environments: An Overview. Photosynthetica, 51, 163-190.
[12] Maathuis, F.J.M. (2009) Physiological Functions of Mineral Macronutrients. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 12, 250-258.
[13] Pasquini, S.C. and Santiago, L.S. (2012) Nutrients Limit Photosynthesis in Seedlings of a Lowland Tropical Forest Tree Species. Oecologia, 168, 311-319.
[14] Adams, M.A., Simon, J. and Pfautsch, S. (2010) Woody Legumes: A (Re)view from the South. Tree Physiology, 30, 1072-1082.
[15] Cooke, S.J. and Suski, C.D. (2008) Ecological Restoration and Physiology: An Overdue Integration. BioScience, 58, 957-968.
[16] Parker, W.C. and Mohammed, G.H. (2000) Photosynthetic Acclimation of Shade-Grown Red Pine (Pinusresinosa Ait.) Seedlings to a High Light Environment. New Forests, 19, 1-11.
[17] Stirbet, A. and Govindjee (2011) On the Relation between the Kautsky Effect (Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Induction) and Photosystem II: Basics and Applications of the OJIP Fluorescence Transient. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 104, 236-257.
[18] Kalaji, H.M., Carpentier, R., Allakhverdiev, S.I. and Bosa, K. (2012) Fluorescence Parameters as Early Indicators of Light Stress in Barley. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 112, 1-6.
[19] Ferreira, M.J., Gonçalves, J.F.C. and Ferraz, J.B.S. (2009) Photosynthetic Parameters of Young Brazil Nut (Bertholletia excelsa H. B.) Plants Subjected to Fertilization in a Degraded Area in Central Amazonia. Photosynthetica, 47, 616-620.
[20] de Faria, S.M., Abdala, G.D., Lima, A.C., Ribeiro, R.D., Galiana, A., Castilho, A.F. and Henriques, J.C. (2010) Evaluating the Nodulation Status of Leguminous Species from the Amazonian Forest of Brazil. Journal of Experimental Botany, 61, 3119-3127.
[21] Lojka, B., Dumas, L., Preininger, D., Polesny, Z. and Banout, J. (2010) The Use and Integration of Inga edulis in Agroforestry Systems in the Amazon—Review Article. Agricultura Tropicaet Subtropica, 43, 352-359.
[22] Fearnside, P.M. and Leal Filho, N.L. (2001) Soil and Development in Amazonia: Lessons from the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project. In: Bierregaard, R.O., Gascon, C., Lovejoy, T.E. and Mesquita, R., Eds., Lessons from Amazonia: The Ecology and Conservation of a Fragmented Forest, Yale University Press, New Haven, 291-312.
[23] Hunt, R. (1990) Basic Growth Analysis. Edward Arnold, London.
[24] Lichtenthaler, H.K. and Wellburn, A.R. (1983) Determination of Total Carotenoids and Chlorophylls a and b of Leaf Extracts in Different Solvents. Biochemical Society Transactions, 11, 591-603.
[25] Srivastava, A., Strasser, R.J. and Govindjee. (1999) Greening of Peas: Parallel Measurements of 77 K Emission Spectra, OJIP Chlorophyll a Fluorescence, Period Four Oscillation of the Initial Fluorescence Level, Delayed Light Emission, and P700. Photosynthetica, 37, 365-392.
[26] Hall, J.S., Love, B.E., Garen, E.J., Slusser, J.L., Saltonstall, K., Mathias, S., Breugel, M., Ibarra, D., Bork, E.W., Spaner, D., Wishnie, M.H. and Ashton, M.S. (2011) Tree Plantations on Farms: Evaluating Growth and Potential for Success. Forest Ecology and Management, 261, 1675-1683.
[27] Joslin, A.H., Markewitz, D., Morris, L.A., Oliveira, F.A., Figueiredo, R.O. and Kato, O.R. (2011) Five Native Tree Species and Manioc under Slash-and-Mulch Agroforestry in the Eastern Amazon of Brazil: Plant Growth and Soil Responses. Agroforestry Systems, 81, 1-14.
[28] Souza, C.R., Azevedo, C.P., Lima, R.M. and Rossi, L.M.B. (2010) Comportamento de Espécies Florestais em Plantios a Pleno Sol e em Faixas de Enriquecimento de Capoeira na Amazônia. ActaAmazonica, 40, 127-134. (In Portuguese)
[29] Souza, C.R., Lima, R.M.B., Azevedo, C.P. and Rossi, L.M.B. (2008) Efficiency of Forest Species for Multiple Use in Amazonia. Scientia Forestalis, 36, 7-14.(In Portuguese)
[30] Tonini, H., Oliveira Jr., M.M.C. and Schwengber, D. (2008) Growth of Amazon Native Species Submitted to the Plantation in the Roraima State. Ciência Florestal, 18, 151-158. (In Portuguese)
[31] Nichols, J.D., Rosemeyer, M.E., Carpenter, F.L. and Kettler, J. (2001) Intercropping Legume Trees with Native Timber Trees Rapidly Restores Cover to Eroded Tropical Pasture without Fertilization. Forest Ecology and Management, 152, 195-209.
[32] Cherr, C.M., Scholberg, J.M.S. and McSoley, R. (2006) Green Manure Approaches to Crop Production: A Synthesis. Agronomy Journal, 98, 302-319.
[33] Jaquetti, R.K. (2012) Initial Growth and Photosynthetic Responses of Three Leguminous Trees Subjected to Green and Chemical Fertilization in Forest Plantation in the Amazon. Dissertation, National Institute of Amazonian Research, Manaus. (In Portuguese)
[34] Ferreira, M.J., Gonçalves, J.F. and Ferraz, J.B.S. (2012) Growth and Water Use Efficiency of Young Brazil Nut Plants on Degraded Area Subjected to Fertilization. Ciencia Florestal, 22, 393-401. (In Portuguese)
[35] Mittler, R. (2006) Abiotic Stress, the Field Environment and Stress Combination. Trends in Plant Science, 11, 15-19.
[36] Zhao, D.L., Oosterhuis, D.M. and Bednarz, C.W. (2001) Influence of Potassium Deficiency on Photosynthesis, Chlorophyll Content, and Chloroplast Ultrastructure of Cotton Plants. Photosynthetica, 39, 103-109.
[37] Marenco, R.A., Gonçalves, J.F.C. and Vieira, G. (2001) Leaf Gas Exchange and Carbohydrates in Tropical Trees Differing in Successional Status in Two Light Environments in Central Amazonia. Tree Physiology, 21, 1311-1318.
[38] Clearwater, M.J., Susilawaty, R., Effendi, R. and van Gardingen, P.R. (1999) Rapid Photosynthetic Acclimation of Shorea johorensis Seedlings after Logging Disturbance in Central Kalimantan. Oecologia, 121, 478-488.
[39] McAinsh, M.R. and Pittman, J.K. (2009) Shaping the Calcium Signature. New Phytologist, 181, 275-294.
[40] Gonçalves, J.F.C., Silva, C.E., Guimarães, D.G. and Bernardes, R.S. (2010) Análise dos Transientes da Fluorescência da Clorofila a de Plantas Jovens de Carapa Guianensis e de Dipteryx odorata Submetidas a Dois Ambientes de Luz. Acta Amazonica, 40, 89-98. (In Portuguese)
[41] de Morais, R.R., Gonçalves, J.F.C., Santos Júnior, U.M., Dünisch, O. and Santos, A.L.W. (2007) Chloroplastid Pigment Contents and Chlorophyll a Fluorescence in Amazonian Tropical Tree Species. Revista árvore, 31, 959-966.
[42] Krause, G.H., Koroleva, O.Y., Dalling, J.W. and Winter, K. (2001) Acclimation of Tropical Tree Seedlings to Excessive Light in Simulated Tree-Fall Gaps. Plant, Cell and Environment, 24, 1345-1352.
[43] Gonçalves, J.F.C., Santos Jr., U.M., Nina Jr., A.R. and Chevreuil, L.R. (2007) Energetic Flux and Performance Index in Copaiba (Copaifera multijuga Hayne) and Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) Seedlings Grown under Two Irradiance Environments. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 19, 171-184.
[44] Hallik, L., Niinemets, ü. and Kull, O. (2012) Photosynthetic Acclimation to Light in Woody and Herbaceous Species: A Comparison of Leaf Structure, Pigment Content and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Characteristics Measured in the Field. Plant Biology, 14, 88-99.
[45] Makoto, K. and Koike, T. (2007) Effects of Nitrogen Supply on Photosynthetic and Anatomical Changes in Current-Year Needles of Pinus koraiensis Seedlings Grown under Two Irradiances. Photosynthetica, 45, 99-104.
[46] Liu, X., Ellsworth, D.S. and Tyree, M.T. (1997) Leaf Nutrition and Photosynthetic Performance of Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) in Stands with Contrasting Health Conditions. Tree Physiology, 17, 169-178.
[47] Hendry, G.A.F. and Price, A.H. (1993) Stress Indicators: Chlorophylls and Carotenoids. In: Hendry, G.A.F. and Grime, J.P., Eds., Methods in Comparative Plant Ecology, Chapman & Hall, London, 148-152.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.