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Mineral Fabrication and Golgi Apparatus Activity in the Mouse Calvarium

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DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2014.79075    2,425 Downloads   2,902 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

There is diverse opinion about the mechanism of bone mineralization with only intermittent reports of any direct organellar role played by the golgi apparatus (juxtanuclear body). Light and laser confocal microscopy was combined with electron microscopy and elemental EDX (energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis) in comparing “young” osteocytes in situ in fresh and “slam” frozen developing mouse calvarium, with similar cells (MC3T3-E1) maintained in vitro. The distribution of “nascent” electron dense mineral was examined histochemically (von Kossa, GBHA), including tetracycline (TC) staining as a fluorescent complex with bone salt, while golgi body activity was demonstrated by transfection with a specific green fluorescent construct (GFP/mannosidase II). In tissue culture golgi body activity and mineralization were both blocked by brefeldin A (an established golgi inhibitor) and restored by forskolin, enabling an association with mineral fabrication to be quantified as changing fluorescence intensity (AU) of GFP or TC markers. Results from osteocytes in situ supported previous descriptions of intracellular electron dense objects (microspheres and nanospheres) in a juxtanuclear pattern, containing Ca, P and transitory Si, in a spectrum recapitulated in the calcifying culture after 10 days, when GFP fluorophore surged from 71.7 ± 1.4SD to 133.7 ± 2.7SD AU by 14 days (p < 0.0001). At this stage TC fluorophore mean intensity was 23.8 ± 3.7SD AU (14 days) rising to 45.0 ± 5.1SD AU by 17 days, compared to its stationary 21.7 ± 3.6SD when treated 3 days previously with BFA golgi inhibitor (p < 0.0001), until forskolin reversal. It was concluded from the changing juxtanuclear morphology, Si mineralization mediation and the variably controlled activity versus stasis that the inorganic phase of bone is a complex golgi-directed fabrication with implications for bone matrix biology and evolution.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Fallon, V. , Carter, D. and Aaron, J. (2014) Mineral Fabrication and Golgi Apparatus Activity in the Mouse Calvarium. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 7, 769-779. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2014.79075.

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