Chemical Constituents and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Senna podocarpa (Guill. et Perr.) Lock


The chemistry of essential obtained from the leaves of Senna podocarpa (Guill. Et Perr.) Lock from Nigeria is being reported. The hydrodistilled oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. The main constituents of the oil were 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono (2-ethylhexyl) ester phthalate (26.6%) and β-elemene (27.9%). There were significant amounts of caryophyllene oxide (7.3%) and urs-12-en-24-oic acid, 3-oxo-methyl ester (5.5%). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was evaluated against a panel of seven bacteria and two fungal strain using agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Results had shown that the oil exhibited moderate to strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. The activity zones of inhibition (ZI) ranged between 10.0 ± 0.2 mm and 28.3 ± 2.9 mm while the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged between 0.3 mg/mL 5.0 mg/mL, respectively. The chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Senna podocarpa were being reported for the first time.

Share and Cite:

Adebayo, M. , Lawal, O. , Sikiru, A. , Ogunwande, I. and Avoseh, O. (2014) Chemical Constituents and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Senna podocarpa (Guill. et Perr.) Lock. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 2448-2453. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.515259.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Mabberly, D.J. (1987) The Plant-Book. A Portable Dictionary of Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
[2] Adefemi, O.A., Elujoba, A.A. and Odesanmi, W.O. (1988) Evaluation of the Toxicity Potential of Cassia podocarpa with Reference to Official Senna. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research, 8, 41-48.
[3] Akanmu, M.A., Iwalewa, E.O., Elujoba, A.A. and Adelusola, K.A. (2005) Toxicity Potentials of Senna podocarpa (Guill. et Perr.) Lock Pods in Rodents. African Journal of Traditional Complimentary and Alternative Medicine, 2, 274-281.
[4] Adebesin, O.A., Okpuzor, J., Iroanya, O.O., Adenekan, S.O. and Aniekwena, C. (2013) Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Properties of Senna alata and Senna podocarpa Leaf Extracts. Planta Medica, 79, 27.
[5] Adebesin, O.A., Okpuzor, J. and Iroanya, O.O. (2013) Haematological, Biochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Hydromethanolic Extract of Senna alata and Senna podocarpa Leaves on Albino Rats. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Sciences, 2, 876-880.
[6] Ogundare, O.A. (2009) The Antimicrobial Pattern and Phytochemical Properties of the Leaf Extracts of Senna podocarpa. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 3, 400-406.
[7] Silva, O., Barbosa, S., Diniz, A., Valdeira, M.L. and Gomes, E. (1997) Plant Extracts with Antiviral Activity against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and African Swine Fever Virus. Pharmaceutical Biology, 35, 12-16.
[8] Larbi, S.O. and Lewis, R.A. (1976) Biological Assay of Cassia podocarpa: A Plant Related to Senna. West African Journal Pharmacology and Drug Research, 3, 149-152.
[9] Akomolafe, R.O., Adeoshun, I.O., Elujoba, A.A., Ayoka, A.O. and Iwalewa, E.O. (2004) An In-Vitro Study of the Effect of Cassia podocarpa Fruits on the Intestinal Motility of Rats. Phytomedicine, 11, 249-254.
[10] Akomolafe, R.O., Adeoshun, I.O., Elujoba, A.A., Iwalewa, E.O. and Ayoka, A.O. (2004) Effects of Cassia podocarpa Leaves Extracts on Rat Ileum and Colon, (In-Vitro). Bulletins of Latin American and Carrebean Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 3, 52-57.
[11] Elujoba, A.A., Ajulo, O.O. and Iweibo, G.O. (1989) Chemical and Biological Analyses of Nigerian Cassia Species for Laxative Activity. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 7, 1453-1457.
[12] Ogunkunle, A.T.J. and Tonia, A.L. (2006) Ethnobotanical and Phytochemical Studies on Some Species of Senna in Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5, 2020-2023.
[13] Dave, H. and Ledwani, L. (2012) A Review of Anthraquinones Isolated from Cassis Species and Their Applications. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 3, 291-319.
[14] Ajayi, I.A., Jonathan, S.G., Adewuyi, A. and Oderinde, R.A. (2008) Antimicrobial Screening of the Essential Oil of Some Herbal Plants from Western Nigeria. World Applied Sciences Journal, 3, 79-81.
[15] Lawal, O.A., Ogunwande, I.A., Bullem, C.A., Taiwo, O.T. and Opoku, A.R. (2014) Essential Oil Composition and in Vitro Biological Activities of Three Szyzgium Species from Nigeria. In: Jinnan, H., Ed., New Developments in Terpene Research, Nova Science Publisher Inc., New York, 93-112.
[16] (1980) British Pharmacopoeia. Vol. II, H.M. Stationary Office.
[17] Adams, R.P. (2007) Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography/Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry. 4th Edition, Allured Publishing Corporation, Carol Stream.
[18] Joulain, D. and Koenig, W.A. (1989) The Atlas of Spectral Data of Sesquiterpene Hydrocarbons. E.B. Verlag, Hamburg.
[19] Viljoen, A.M., van Vuuren, S.F., Gwebu, T., Demirci, B. and Baser, K.H.C. (2006) The Geographical Variation and Antimicrobial Activity of African Wormwood (Artemisia afra Jacq.) Essential Oil. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 18, 19-25.
[20] Eloff, J.N. (1998) A Sensitive and Quick Microplate Method to Determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration of Plant Extracts for Bacteria. Planta Medica, 64, 711-713.
[21] Microsoft Excel (2003) Excel.
[22] Essien, E.E., Walker, T.M., Ogunwande, I.A., Bansal, A., Setzer, W.N. and Ekundayo, O. (2011) Volatile Constituents, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxicity Potentials of Three Senna Species from Nigeria. Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants, 14, 722-730.
[23] Ogunwande, I.A., Flamini, G., Cioni, P.L., Omikorede, O., Azeez, R.A., Ayodele, A.A. and Yusuff, K.O. (2010) Aromatic Plants Growing in Nigeria: Essential Oil Constituents of Cassia alata (Linn.) Roxb. and Helianthus annuus L. Records of Natural Products, 4, 211-217.
[24] Agnaniet, H., Bikanga, R., Bessière, J.M. and Menut, C. (2005) Aromatic Plants of Tropical Central Africa. Part XLVI. Essential Oil Constituents of Cassia alata (L.) from Gabon. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 17, 410-412.
[25] Tzakou, O., Loukis, A. and Said, A. (2007) Essential Oil from the Flowers and Leaves of Cassia fistula L. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 19, 360-361.
[26] Bagavathi, P.E. and Ramasamy, N. (2012) GC-MS Analysis of Phytocompounds in the Ethanol Extracts of Polygonum chinense L. Pharmacognosy Research, 14, 11-14.
[27] Syeda, F.A., Habib-ur-Rahman, Choudahry, M.I. and Atta-ur-Rahman (2011) Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Analysis of Petroleum Ether Extract (Oil) and Bioassays of Crude Extract of Iris germanica. International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology, 3, 95-100.
[28] Shao, T.-M., Song, X.-P., Chen, G.-Y., Li, X.-B., Yao, G.-G., Deng, K.-Y. and Huang, K.-L. (2013) Analysis of the Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oil from the Leaves of Ficus auriculata Lour by GC-MS. Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products, 33, 135-137.
[29] Zhao, Q., Zhang, B., Zhou, W. and Guo, Z.-F. (2007) Study of Essential Oils of Propolis by Microwave Assisted Extraction Coupled with GC-MS. Fine Chemicals, 12, 204-206.
[30] Elhawary, S.S., El Tantawy, M.E., Rabeh, M.A. and Fawaz, N.E. (2013) DNA Fingerprinting, Chemical Composition, Antitumor and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oils and Extractives of Four Annona Species from Egypt. Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 3, 59-68.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.