Share This Article:

Validation of the Italian Version of the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment Scale (DD-CGAS)

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:966KB) PP. 218-227
DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2014.43028    3,504 Downloads   4,409 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study is to validate the Italian version of the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment Scale (DD-CGAS), a scale developed to assess global functioning in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Methods: Following the validation procedures used for the English version of the scale, inter-rater reliability, temporal stability and convergent validity were assessed in a group of 48 children with ASD and temporal stability in a subset of 42 subjects. Results: Inter-rater reliability and temporal stability (ICC) were respectively 0.78 and 0.79; effect size for convergent validity were moderate to large; the pre-post DD-CGAS change had an effect size of 0.59. Conclusions: The Italian version of the DD-CGAS is a reliable instrument for measuring global functioning of children with ASD.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Mugno, D. , Strano, M. , Collini, M. , Gemma, A. , Peppo, L. , Reale, L. , Micalizio, V. and Mazzone, L. (2014) Validation of the Italian Version of the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment Scale (DD-CGAS). Open Journal of Psychiatry, 4, 218-227. doi: 10.4236/ojpsych.2014.43028.

References

[1] Arnold, L.E., Aman, M.G., Martin, A., Collier-Crespin, A., Vitiello, B., Tierney, E., et al. (2000) Assessment in Multisite Randomized Clinical Trials of Patients with Autistic Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 99-111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005451304303
[2] American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th Edition, American Psychiatric Publishing, Arlington.
[3] Eikeseth, S., Smith, T., Jahr, E. and Eldevik, S. (2002) Intensive Behavioral Treatment at School for 4-7 Year Old Children with Autism. A One-Year Comparison Controlled Study. Behavior Modification, 26, 49-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0145445502026001004
[4] Horner, R.H., Carr, E.G., Strain, P.S., Todd, A.W. and Reed, H.K. (2002) Problem Behavior Interventions for Young Children with Autism: A Research Synthesis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32, 423-446.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1020593922901
[5] Lovaas, O.I. (1987) Behavioral Treatment and Normal Educational and Intellectual Functioning in Young Autistic Children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 3-9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.55.1.3
[6] McEachin, J.J., Smith, T. and Lovaas, O. I. (1993) Long-Term Outcome for Children with Autism Who Received Early Intensive Behavioral Treatment. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 97, 359-372.
[7] National Research Council (2001) Educating Children with Autism. National Academy Press. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington DC.
[8] Sallows, G.O. and Graupner, T.D. (2005) Intensive Behavioral Treatment for Children with Autism: Four-Year Outcome and Predictors. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 110, 417-438.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2005)110[417:IBTFCW]2.0.CO;2
[9] Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network (2002) Risperidone in Children with Autism for Serious Behavioral Problems. The New England Journal of Medicine, 347, 314-321.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa013171
[10] Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network (2005) A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial of Methylphenidate in Pervasive Developmental Disorders with Hyperactivity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 1266-1274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.62.11.1266
[11] Shaffer, D., Gould, M.S., Brasic, J., Ambrosini, P., Fisher, P., Bird, H., et al. (1983) A Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS). Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 1228-1231.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1983.01790100074010
[12] Endicott, J., Spitzer, R.L., Fleiss, J.L. and Cohen, J. (1976) The Global Assessment Scale: A Procedure for Measuring Overall Severity of Psychiatric Disturbance. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 766-771. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1976.01770060086012
[13] Mufson, L., Dorta, K.P., Wickramaratne, P., Nomura, Y., Olfson, M. and Weissman, M.M. (2004) A Randomized Effectiveness Trial of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 577-584. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.61.6.577
[14] Bolte, S. and Poutska, F. (2002) The Relation between General Cognitive Level and Adaptive Behavior Domains in Individuals with Autism with and without Co-Morbid Mental Retardation. Child Psychiatry Human Development, 33, 165-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.61.6.577
[15] Schatz, J. and Hamden-Allen, G. (1995) Effects of Age and IQ on Adaptive Behavior Domains for Children with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25, 51-60.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02178167
[16] Stone, W.L., Ousley, O.Y., Hepburn, S.L., Hogan, K.L. and Brown, C.S. (1999) Patterns of Adaptive Behavior in Very Young Children with Autism. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 104, 187-199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(1999)104<0187:POABIV>2.0.CO;2
[17] Sparrow, S., Balla, D. and Cichetti, D. (1984) The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. American Guidance Service, Circle Pines.
[18] Volkmar, F.R., Carter, A., Sparrow, S.S. and Cicchetti, D.V. (1993) Quantifying Social Development in Autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 627-632.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199305000-00020
[19] Williams, S.K., Scahill, L., Vitiello, B., Aman, M.G., Arnold, L.E., McDougle, C.J., et al. (2006) Risperidone and Adaptive Behavior in Children with Autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 431-439. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000196423.80717.32
[20] Partington, J.W. and Sundberg, M.L. (1998) The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skill. Behavior Analysts, Pleasant Hills.
[21] Sundberg, M.L. (2008) VB-MAPP Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program: A Language and Social Skills Assessment Program for Children with Autism or Other Developmental Disabilities. Guide, AVB Press.
[22] Aman, M.G., Novotny, S., Samango-Sprouse, C., Lecavalier, L., Leonard, E., Gadow, K.D., et al. (2004) Outcome Measures for Clinical Drug Trials in Autism. CNS Spectrums, 9, 36-47.
[23] Endicott, J. and Nee, J. (1997) Endicott Work Productivity Scale (EXPS): A New Measure to Assess Treatment Effects. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 33, 13-16.
[24] Lehmann, E. (1984) Practicable and Valid Approaches to Evaluate the Efficacy of Nootropic Drugs by Means of Rating Scales. Pharmacopsychiatry, 17, 71-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-1017411
[25] Wagner, A., Lecavalier, L., Arnold, L.E., Aman, M.G., Scahill, L., Stigler, K.A., Johnson, C.R., McDougle, C.J. and Vitiello, B. (2007) Developmental Disabilities Modification of the Children’s Global Assessment Scale. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 504-511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.01.001
[26] American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th Edition, American Psychiatric Association, Washington DC.
[27] Wechsler, D. (1949) The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Psychological Corp, New York.
[28] Roid, G.H. and Miller, L.J. (1997) Leiter International Performance Scale—Revised. Stoelting, Wood Dale.
[29] Schopler, E., Lansing, M.D., Reichler, R.J. and Marcus, L.M. (2004) Psychoeducational Profile Third Edition (PEP-3). Pro-Ed, Austin, TX.
[30] Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P.C. and Risi, S. (1989) Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Western Psychological Services.
[31] Cohen, J. (1988) Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. 2nd Edition, Erlbaum, Hillsdale.
[32] Kraemer, H.C., Morgan, G.A., Leech, N.L., Gliner, J.A., Vaske, J.J. and Harmon, R.J. (2005) Measures of Clinical Significance. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 1524-1529. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200312000-00022

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.