Self Consistent Calibration of Detectors and Sources for Hard and Soft X-Ray Diagnostics


X-Ray sources, detectors and optical components are now used in a wide range of applications. What is crucial is the absolute calibration of such devices to permit a quantitative assessment of the system under study. A new X-ray laboratory has been built in Frascati (ENEA) to develop diagnostics for nuclear fusion experiments and study applications of these X-ray techniques in other domains, like new material science, non destructive tests and so on. An in-house developed selfconsistent calibration procedure is described that permits the absolute calibration of sources (X-ray emitted fluxes) and detectors (detection efficiencies) as function of the X-ray photon energy, in the range 2 - 120 keV. The calibration procedure involves the use of an in-house developed code that also predicts the spectral response of any detector in any experimental condition that can be setup in the laboratory. The procedure has been then applied for the calibration and characterisation of gas and solid state imaging detectors, such as Medipix-2, GEM gas detector, CCD camera, Cd-Te C-MOS imager, demonstrating the versatility of the method developed here.

Share and Cite:

Pacella, D. , Romano, A. , Lee, S. , Causa, F. , Gabellieri, L. and Choe, W. (2014) Self Consistent Calibration of Detectors and Sources for Hard and Soft X-Ray Diagnostics. Modern Instrumentation, 3, 13-23. doi: 10.4236/mi.2014.33003.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Pacella, D., Romano, A., Gabellieri, L., Murtas, F. and Mazon, D. (2013) GEM Gas Detectors for Soft X-Ray Imaging in Fusion Devices with Neutron-Gamma Background. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 720, 53-57.
[2] Pacella, D., Dabagov, S., Murtas, F., Romano, A., Hampai, D., Gabellieri, L. and Mazon, D. (2011) Polycapillary Optics for Soft X-Ray Imaging and Tomography. IL NUOVO CIMENTO, 34, 513-520.
[3] Romano, A., Pacella, D., Mazon, D., Murtas, F., Malard, P., Gabellieri, L., Tilia, B., Piergotti, V. and Corradi, G. (2010) Characterization of a 2D Soft X-Ray Tomography Camera with Discrimination in Energy Band. Review of Scientific Instruments, 81, 10E523.
[4] Amptek. Efficiency Curves.
[5] Llopart, X., Campbell, M., Dinapoli, R., Segundo, D. and Pernigotti, E. (2002) Medipix 2: A 64-k Pixel Readout Chip with 55-μm Square Elements Working in Single Photon Counting Mode. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 49, 2279-2283.
[6] Gabellieri, L., Romano, A., Pacella, D., Causa, F., Murtas, F. and Claps, G. (2013) X-Ray Imaging in Tokamaks: Characterization of a C-MOS Imager (Medipix-2). Proceedings of the 40th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, Espoo, 1-5 July 2013, 5-119.
[7] Pacella, D., Gabellieri, L., Romano, A., Causa, F., Murtas, F., Claps, G., Lee, S.H., Hong, J., Jang, J. and Choe, W. (2013) GEM-Based Energy Resolved X-Ray Tangential Imaging System on KSTAR. Proceedings of the 40th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, Espoo, 1-5 July 2013, 5-118.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.