Germination of Encholirium spectabile Mart. ex Schult. & Schult. f. Seeds in Response to Temperature and Water Stress


A study was conducted to examine the effects of different temperatures and water stress on Encholirium spectabile seeds. We evaluated the germination percentage, speed and time of germination of small (<2.97 mm), medium (2.97 ≤ M ≤ 4.01 mm) and large seeds (>4.01 mm), at temperatures of 15°C, 20°C, 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, 40°C and 45°C and a photoperiod of 12 hours of light. Seeds were subjected to osmotic potentials of 0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, -0.8, -1.0, -1.2 and -1.4 MPa, induced by solutions of polyethylene glycol. The results indicated an excellent germination of medium and large seeds at the temperatures of 20°C, 25°C, 30°C and 35°C. The temperature of 35°C provided the best mean germination time of large seeds and a higher speed rate of medium and large seeds. E. spectabile seeds germinate in a wide range of water deficit of -0.2 to -1.2 MPa. Germination reduced at concentrations of -1.0 and -1.2 MPa. No germination occurred at -1.4 MPa. Larger seeds showed the higher germination potential than medium and small seeds at the temperatures of 25°C, 30°C and 35°C and in the range ofwater deficit of -0.2 to -1.2 Mpa. 

Share and Cite:

Figueiredo, M. , Barboza Nogueira, F. , Pinheiro, C. , Freire de Brito, S. and Medeiros Filho, S. (2014) Germination of Encholirium spectabile Mart. ex Schult. & Schult. f. Seeds in Response to Temperature and Water Stress. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 2237-2246. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.515238.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Poorter, L., Bongers, F., Sterck, F.J. and Woll, H. (2005) Beyond the Regeneration Phase: Differentiation of Height-Light Trajectories among Tropical Tree Species. Journal of Ecology, 93, 256-267.
[2] Du, Y. and Huang, Z. (2008) Effects of Seed Mass and Emergence Time on Seedling Performance in Castanopis chinensis. Forest Ecology and Management, 255, 2495-2501.
[3] Chesson, P., Gebauer, R.L.E., Schwinning, S., Huntly, N., Wiegand, K., Ernest, S.K.M., Sher, A., Novoplansky, A. and Weltzin, J.F. (2004) Resouce Pulses, Species Interactions and Diversity Maintenance in Arid and Semi-Arid Environments. Oecologia, 141, 236-253.
[4] Gorai, M., Tlig, T. and Neffati, M. (2009) Influence of Water Stress on Seed Germination Characteristics in Invasive Diplotaxis harra (Forssk.) Boiss (Brassicaceae) in Arid Zone of Tunisia. Journal of Phytology, 1, 249-254.
[5] Moles, A.T. and Westoby, M. (2004) What Do Seedlings Die From, and What Are the Implications for Evolution of Seed Size? Oikos, 106, 193-199.
[6] Gorai, M. and Neffati, M. (2007) Germination Responses of Reaumuria vermiculata to Salinity and Temperature. Annals of Applied Biology, 151, 53-59.
[7] Bewley, J.D. and Black, M. (1994) Seeds: Physiology of Development and Germination. Plenum Press, New York.
[8] Leishman, M.R. and Westoby, M. (1994) The Role of Seed Size in Seedling Establishment in Dry Soil Conditions— Experimental Evidence from Semi-Arid Species. Journal of Ecology, 82, 249-258.
[9] Leishman, M.R., Wright, I.J., Moles, A.T. and Westoby, M. (2000) The Evolutionary Ecology of Seed Size. In: Fenner, M., Ed., Seeds—The Ecology of Regeneration in Plant Communities, Wallingford, UK, 31-58.
[10] Villalobos, A.E. and Peláez, D.V. (2001) Influences of Temperature and Water Stress on Germination and Establishment of Prosopis caldenia Burk. Journal of Arid Environments, 49, 321-328.
[11] Verslues, P.E., Agarwal, M., Katiyar-Agarwal, S., Zhu, J. and Zhu, J.K. (2006) Methods and Concepts in Quantifying Resistance to Drought, Salt and Freezing, Abiotic Stresses That Affect Plant Water Status. The Plant Journal, 45, 523-539.
[12] Bonvissuto, G.L. and Busso, C.A. (2007) Germination of Grasses and Shrubs under Various Water Stress and Temperature Conditions. Pyton, 76, 119-131.
[13] Baskin, C.C. and Baskin, J.M. (1988) Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination. Academic Press, New York.
[14] Qi, M.Q. and Redmann, R.E. (1993) Seed Germination and Seedling Survival of C3 and C4 Grass under Water Stress. Journal of Arid Environments, 24, 277-285.
[15] Pratap, V. and Sharma, Y.K. (2010) Impacto of Osmotic Stress on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth in Black Gram (Phaseolus Mungo). Journal of Environmental Biology, 31, 721-726.
[16] Ramalho, M., Batista, M.A. and Silva, M. (2004) Xylocopa (Monoxylocopa) abbreviata Hurd & Moure (Hymenoptera: Apidae) e Encholirium spectabile (Bromeliaceae): Uma Associação Estreita no Semi-árido do Brasil Tropical. Neotropical Entomology, 33, 417-425.
[17] Porembski, S. (2007) Tropical Inselbergs: Habitat Types, Adaptive Strategies and Diversity Patterns. Revista Brasileira de Botanica, 30, 579-586.
[18] Ibisch, P.L., Rauer, G., Rudolph, D. and Barthlott, W. (1995) Floristic, Biogeographical, and Vegetational Aspects of Pre-Cambrian Rock Outcrops (Inselbergs) in Eastern Bolivia. Flora, 190, 299-314.
[19] Porembski, S., Fischer, E., Biedinger, N. (1997) Vegetation of Inselbergs, Quarzitic Outcrops and Ferricretes in Rwanda and Eastern Zaire (Kivu). Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, 66, 81-99.
[20] Li, H., Li, X., Zhang, D., Liu, H. and Guan, K. (2013) Effects of Drought Stress on the Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth of the Endemic Desert Plant Eremosparton songoricum (Fabaceae). EXCLI Journal, 12, 89-101.
[21] Ipece. Instituto de Pesquisa e Estratégia Econômica do Ceará (2009) Perfil básico municipal: Graça. Disponível.
[22] Carvalho, K.I.M., Bernardes, H.B., Machado, F.D.F., Oliveira, I.S., Oliveira, F.A., Nunes, P.H.M., Lima, J.T., Almeida, J.R.G.S. and Oliveira, R.C.M. (2010) Antiulcer Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Encholirium spectabile Mart. ex Schult & Schult f. (Bromeliaceae) in Rodents. Biological Research, 43, 459-465.
[23] Brazil (2009) Regras para análise de sementes. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento, Brasília.
[24] Hardegree, S.P. and Emmerich, W.E. (1994) Seed Germination Response to Polyethylene Glycol Solution Depth. Seed Science and Technology, 22, 1-7.
[25] Ishikawa, S.I. and Kachi, N. (2000) Differential Salt Tolerance of Two Artemisia Species Growing in Contrasting Coastal Habitats. Ecological Research, 15, 241-247.
[26] Silveira, D.G., Pelacani, C.R., Antunes, C.G.C., Rosa, S.S., Souza, F.V.D. and Santana, J.R.F. (2011) Resposta Germinativa de Sementes de Caroá [Neoglaziovia variegata (Arruda) Mez]. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, 35, 948-955.
[27] SPSS Inc. (2011) SPSS Version 20 (Computer Program). SPSS Inc., Chicago.
[28] Duarte, E.F., Carneiro, I.F., Silva, N.F. and Guimarães, N.N.R. (2010) Características Físicas e Germinação de Sementes de Dyckia goehringii Gross & Rauh (Bromeliaceae) sob Diferentes Temperaturas. Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical, 40, 422-429.
[29] Srimathi, P., Swaminathan, C., Sivagnaram, K. and Surendran, C. (1991) Seed Attributes in Relation to Their Position in the Pod and Its Influence on Seedling Establishment of Four Ornamental Tree Species. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 4, 245-248.
[30] Marcos Filho, J. (2005) Fisiologia de Sementes de Plantas Cultivadas. Fealq, Piracicaba.
[31] Easton, L.C. and Kleindorfer, S. (2008) Interaction Effects of Seed Mass and Temperature on Germination in Australian Species of Frankenia (Frankeniaceae). Folia Geobotanica, 43, 383-396.
[32] Borghetti, F. (2005) Temperaturas Extremas e a Germinação das Sementes. In: Nogueira, R.J.M.C., Araújo, E.L., Willadino, L.G. and Cavalcante, U.M.T., Eds., Estresses Ambientais: Danos e Benefícios em Plantas, MXM Gráfica e Editora, Recife, 207-218.
[33] Martins, L.D., Costa, F.P., Lopes, J.C. and Rodrigues, W.N. (2012) Influence of Pre-Germination Treatments and Temperature on the Germination of Crambre Seeds (Drambre abyssinica Hochst). Idesia, 30, 23-28.
[34] Vieira, D.C.M., Socolowski, F. and Takaki, M. (2007) Germinação de Sementes de Dyckia tuberose (Vell.) Beer (Bromeliaceae) sob Diferentes Temperaturas em Luz e Escuro. Revista Brasileira de Botancia, 30, 183-188.
[35] Pinheiro, F. and Borghetti, F. (2003) Light and Temperature Requirements for Germination of Seeds of Aechmea nudicaulis (L.) Griesebach and Streptocalyx floribundus (Martius ex Schultes F.) Mez (Bromeliaceae). Acta Botanica Brasilica, 17, 27-35.
[36] Pereira, A.R., Andrade, A.C.S., Pereira, T.S., Forzza, R.C. and Rodrigues, A.S. (2009) Comportamento Germinativo de Espécies Epífitas e Rupícolas de Bromeliaceae do Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca. Revista Brasileira de Botanica, 32, 827-838.
[37] Evans, C.E. and Etherington, J.R. (1990) The Effect of Water Potential on Seed Germination of Some British Plants. New Phytologist, 115, 539-548.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.