The Relationships between Pre-Service Primary Teachers’ Teaching and Instructing/Coaching Orientations, and Their Perceived Strengths in Teaching Physical Education at the Primary Level

DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.511109   PDF   HTML     3,237 Downloads   4,567 Views   Citations


This study explored if the orientations towards instructing/coaching in physical activities (PA) and teaching physical education (PE) affect the perceived strengths in teaching PE at the primary level (PSTPEs). The orientations were considered as socializing factors into teaching PE. In this study, the perceived strengths were divided into discipline- and pupil-focused strengths. Online questionnaire was used to collect the data from 386 first year pre-service primary teachers before their first PE course of formal teacher education, to expose the acculturative influences of the orientations. Cross tabulation and logistic regression were used to analyze the relationships. The main results suggested that pre-service primary teachers with an instructing/coaching orientation perceived discipline-focused strengths (sportiness and teaching skills) as their assets in teaching PE contrasted by the finding that those with teaching orientation and without instruction/coaching orientation more likely perceived the pupil-focused empathy as their main asset. Even though, the associations were not strong, they exposed interesting directions of effects of acculturative socialization into teaching in terms of perceived strengths. This study adds to the existing research on teaching PE information of the acculturative formation of discipline- and pupil-focused PSTPEs through instruction/coaching and teaching orientations. In order to develop the effectiveness of formal teacher education, we suggest widening and deepening the research of acculturative formation of the perceived strengths and particularly their practical influences on formal teacher training and later on their behavior while teaching PE.

Share and Cite:

Valtonen, J. , Hirvensalo, M. , Reunamo, J. and Ruismäki, H. (2014) The Relationships between Pre-Service Primary Teachers’ Teaching and Instructing/Coaching Orientations, and Their Perceived Strengths in Teaching Physical Education at the Primary Level. Creative Education, 5, 954-962. doi: 10.4236/ce.2014.511109.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Barney, D., & Deutsch, J. (2009). Elementary Classroom Teachers Attitudes and Perspectives of Elementary Physical Education. Physical Educator, 66, 114-123.
[2] Callea, M. B., Spittle, M., O’Meara, J., & Casey, M. (2008). Primary School Teacher Perceived Self-Efficacy to Teach Fundamental Motor Skills. Research in Education, 79, 67-75.
[3] Capel, S., & Katene, W. (2000). Secondary PGCE PE Students’ Perceptions of Their Subject Knowledge. European Physical Education Review, 6, 46-70.
[4] Cohen, J. (1992). A Power Primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155-159.
[5] Curtner-Smith, M. D. (2001). The Occupational Socialization of a First-Year Physical Education Teacher with a Teaching Orientation. Sport, Education & Society, 6, 81-105.
[6] DeCorby, K., Halas, J., Dixon, S., Wintrup, L., & Janzen, H. (2005). Classroom Teachers and the Challenges of Delivering Quality Physical Education. Journal of Educational Research, 98, 208-220.
[7] Doolittle, S. A., Dodds, P., & Placek, J. H. (1993). Persistence of Beliefs about Teaching during Formal Training of Preservice Teachers. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 12, 355-365.
[8] Faulkner, G., & Reeves, C. (2000). Primary School Student Teachers’ Physical Self-Perceptions and Attitudes toward Teaching Physical Education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 19, 311-324.
[9] Faulkner, G., Reeves, C., & Chedzoy, S. (2004). Nonspecialist, Preservice Primary-School Teachers: Predicting Intentions to Teach Physical Education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 23, 200-215.
[10] Ferguson, C. J. (2009). An Effect Size Primer: A Guide for Clinicians and Researchers. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 40, 532-538.
[11] Garrett, R., & Wrench, A. (2007). Physical Experiences: Primary Student Teachers’ Conceptions of Sport and Physical Education. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 12, 23-42.
[12] Green, K. (2002). Physical Education Teachers in Their Figurations: A Sociological Analysis of Everyday “Philosophies”. Sport, Education & Society, 7, 65-83.
[13] Hutchinson, G. E. (1993). Prospective Teachers’ Perspectives on Teaching Physical Education: An Interview Study on the Recruitment Phase of Teacher Socialization. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 12, 344-354.
[14] Katene, W., Faulkner, G., & Reeves, C. (2000). The Relationship between Primary Student Teachers’ Exercise Behavior and Their Attitude to Teaching Physical Education. British Journal of Teaching Physical Education, 31, 44-46.
[15] Kirk, D. (2004). Framing Quality Physical Education: The Elite Sport Model or Sport Education? Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 9, 185-195.
[16] Konukman, F., Agbu?a, B., Erdo?an, S., Zorba, E., Demirhan, G., & Y?lmaz, I. (2011). Teacher-Coach Role Conflict in School-Based Physical Education in USA: A Literature Review and Suggestions for the Future. Biomedical Human Kinetics, 2, 19-24.
[17] Lawson, H. A. (1983). Toward a Model of Teacher Socialization in Physical Education: The Subjective Warrant, Recruitment, and Teacher Education (Part 1). Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 2, 3-16.
[18] Lawson, H. A. (1988). Occupational Socialization, Cultural Studies, and the Physical Education Curriculum. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 7, 265-288.
[19] Lortie, D. C. (1975). Schoolteacher. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
[20] Matanin, M., & Collier, C. (2003). Longitudinal Analysis of Preservice Teachers’ Beliefs about Teaching Physical Education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 22, 153-168.
[21] Meirink, J. A., Meijer, P. C., Verloop, N., & Bergen, T. C. M. (2009). Understanding Teacher Learning in Secondary Education: The Relations of Teacher Activities to Changed Beliefs about Teaching and Learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25, 89-100.
[22] Mitchell, M., Doolittle, S., & Schwager, S. (2005). The Influence of Experience on Pre-Service Teachers’ Perceptions of Good and Bad Aspects of a Lesson. Physical Educator, 62, 66-75.
[23] Morgan, P. J., & Bourke, S. (2008). Non-Specialist Teachers’ Confidence to Teach PE: The Nature and Influence of Personal School Experiences in PE. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 13, 1-29.
[24] Morgan, P. J., & Hansen, V. (2008). The Relationship between PE Biographies and PE Teaching Practices of Classroom Teachers. Sport, Education & Society, 13, 373-391.
[25] Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ Beliefs and Educational Research: Cleaning up a Messy Construct. Review of Educational Research, 62, 307-332.
[26] Penttinen, S. (2003). Lähtökohdat liikuntaa opettavaksi luokanopettajaksi. Nuoruuden kasvuympäristöt ja opettajankoulutus opettajuuden kehitystekijöinä . Jyväskylä: Jyväskylän yliopisto.
[27] Placek, J. H., Dodds, P., Doolittle, S. A., Portman, P. A., Ratliffe, T. A., & Pinkham, K. M. (1995). Teaching Recruits’ Physical Education Backgrounds and Beliefs about Purposes for Their Subject Matter.
Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 14, 246-261.
[28] Randall, L., & Maeda, J. K. (2010). Pre-Service Elementary Generalist Teachers’ Past Experiences in Elementary Physical Education and Influence of These Experiences on Current Beliefs. Brock Education: A Journal of Educational Research and Practice, 19, 20-35.
[29] Rich, E. (2004). Exploring Teachers’ Biographies and Perceptions of Girls’ Participation in Physical Education. European Physical Education Review, 10, 215-240.
[30] Richards, K. A., & Templin, T. J. (2012). Toward a Multidimensional Perspective on Teacher-Coach Role Conflict. Quest, 64, 164-176.
[31] Richardson, V. (2003). Preservice Teachers’ Beliefs. In J. Raths, & A. R. McAninch (Eds.), Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Performance: The Impact of Teacher Education (pp. 1-22). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
[32] Rosnow, R. L., & Rosenthal, R. (2003). Effect Sizes for Experimenting Psychologists. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 57, 221-237.
[33] Spittle, M. (2009). Applying Self-Determination Theory to Understand the Motivation for Becoming a Physical Education Teacher. Teaching & Teacher Education, 25, 190-197.
[34] Valtonen, J., Autio, O., Reunamo, J., & Ruismäki, H. (2012) The Relationship between Pre-Service Class Teachers’ Various Backgrounds and Conceptions of Good Physical Education. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences, 45, 595-604.
[35] Valtonen, J., & Ruismäki, H. (2012). Liikuntaa Opettavaksi Opettajaksi Sosiaalistuminen—Luokanopettajaopiskelijoiden Koulutus-ja Työkokemustaustojen Yhteydet Käsityksiin Hyvästä Alakoulun Liikunnanopetuksesta. Socialisation into Teaching Physical Education—The Conceptions of Good Teaching of Preservice Class Teachers in the Light of Work and Schooling Experience of Sports and Physical Activities. Liikunta & Tiede, 49, 23-28.
[36] Webster, C. (2011). Relationships between Personal Biography and Changes in Preservice Classroom Teachers’ Physical Activity Promotion Competence and Attitudes. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 30, 339.
[37] Webster, C., Monsma, E., & Erwin, H. (2010). The Role of Biographical Characteristics in Preservice Classroom Teachers’ School Physical Activity Promotion Attitudes. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 29, 358-377.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.