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Prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia in Infants and Children and Treatment with Microencapsulated Iron II Fumarate and Supplied Ascorbic Acid as “Sprinkles”

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DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.57081    4,068 Downloads   5,648 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Background: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in children and infants is a common nutritional problem all over the world. Infants and young children have a high risk for developing iron deficiency (ID) because they have high demand for iron during the period of rapid growth. This is aggravated by the insufficiency of iron in their diet. Iron supplementation programs using pediatric tablets or drops have not been successful in the control of anemia amongst infants and children in some countries. “Sprinkles” is an innovative multi-micronutrient home fortification strategy to control iron deficiency and anemia to be more useful. Objective: The objective was to estimate the prevalence ID and IDA in infants and children in Ibb City, Yemen Republic; evaluate the use of a new form of iron and determine the hematologic response to different doses and forms of iron in Sprinkles and iron drops. Design: Using a prospective, randomized, controlled design, we studied 337 randomly children aged 24 - 48 months and infants aged 6 - 24 months in Ibb City (hemoglobin: 70 - 99 g/L). One group received a daily sachet of microencapsulated ferrous fumarate (80 mg elemental Fe) in powder form plus ascorbic acid to be sprinkled onto any complementary food eaten (sprinkles group); a control group received ferrous sulfate drops 3 times/d for 2 months (total dose: 40 mg elemental Fe). Hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations were measured at baseline and at the end of treatment. Results: Successful treatment of anemia (hemoglobin > 100 g/L) occurred in 58% of the sprinkles group and in 56% of the drops group, with minimal side effects in both groups. Geometric mean ferritin concentrations increased significantly in each group from baseline to the end of treatment (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Use of ferrous sulfate drops or a single daily dose of microencapsulated ferrous fumarate sprinkles plus ascorbicacid resulted in a similar rate of successful treatment of anemia without side effects. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the use of microencapsulated iron sprinkles to treat anemia in this area. Improved ease of use may favor the use of sprinkles to deliver iron.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Al-Mamari, A. , Al-Hegami, M. , Al-Hag, S. , Al-Buryhi, M. , Al-Amawi, S. , Ahmed, L. , Al-Awadi, L. , Al-Jamal, S. , Mohammad, W. and Mohammad, Y. (2014) Prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia in Infants and Children and Treatment with Microencapsulated Iron II Fumarate and Supplied Ascorbic Acid as “Sprinkles”. Pharmacology & Pharmacy, 5, 716-724. doi: 10.4236/pp.2014.57081.

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