New Developments in Anti-Anginal Therapy: Roles of Ivabradine, Allopurinol and of Agents Modifying Myocardial Metabolism


Over the last 20 years, it has emerged that, while surgical revascularisation of extensive ischaemic heart disease may have prognostic advantages, the main issues considered regarding individual management are usually those of symptomatic improvement only. The major impetus towards invasive intervention is therefore failure of prophylactic anti-anginal therapy. On the other hand, many patients, especially the elderly, now present the clinical problem of ongoing angina without residual invasive options. There is an ongoing need for more effective anti-anginal therapies. Of the currently available major classes of prophylactic anti-anginal agents, neither nitrates, β-blockers nor calcium antagonists generally produce marked improvements in exercise duration. Three areas of new therapeutic development in anti-anginal therapy are worthy of note. These involve the sinus node inhibitor ivabradine, high dose allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor) and a new class of “metabolic modulators” represented by perhexiline, trimetazidine and probably ranolazine. The current review addresses the therapeutic potential of these agents. Notably, all of these “new” drugs are potentially suitable for management of angina in the setting of impaired left ventricular systolic function, and they may also be utilized in patients with angina independent of the presence of coronary disease (for example in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy). The current evidence for efficacy and potential future development in this area are reviewed.

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Nguyen, T. , Chong, C. , Chan, W. and Horowitz, J. (2014) New Developments in Anti-Anginal Therapy: Roles of Ivabradine, Allopurinol and of Agents Modifying Myocardial Metabolism. World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases, 4, 368-376. doi: 10.4236/wjcd.2014.47046.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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