Identification of various Biomphalaria alexandrina strains collected from five Egyptian governorates using RAPD and species-specific PCR techniques


The first generation of Biomphalaria snails collected from five Egyptian governorates (Giza, Fayoum, Kafr El-Sheikh, Ismailia and Damietta) were sub-jected to species-specific PCR assays and the results showed that snails collected from the field were B. alexandrina, and there was no evidence for the pres-ence of B. glabrata. The snails were subjected also to RAPD- PCR technique. The results showed that dif-ferent fingerprints with each B. alexandrina strain were produced with varying numbers of bands rang-ing in size from 123.6 to 796.6 bp depending on the snail strain and the primer used. Many specific bands were obtained with the four primers in each strain. Primer OPA-1 amplified the highest number of spe-cific bands (26 bands) and gave the highest poly-morphism among the primers used (100% polymor-phism). The estimated similarity coefficients among B. alexandrina strains based on the RAPD-PCR pro-files ranged from 0.56 to 0.72. The highest similarity coefficient (0.72) was recorded between the strains of Ismailia and Kafr El-Sheikh, while the lowest coeffi-cient (0.56) was reported between the strains of SPSC and Ismailia.

Share and Cite:

Mohamed, A. , Sharaf El-Din, A. , Mohamed, A. and Habib, M. (2011) Identification of various Biomphalaria alexandrina strains collected from five Egyptian governorates using RAPD and species-specific PCR techniques. American Journal of Molecular Biology, 1, 17-25. doi: 10.4236/ajmb.2011.11003.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Malek, E.T. (1985) Snail hosts of schistosomiasis and other snail transmitted diseases in Tropical America. A Manual Scientific Publication, PAHO, Washington.
[2] Caldeira, R.L., Jannotti-Passos, L.K. and Carvalho, O.S. (2009) Molecular epidemiology of Brazilian Biomphalaria: A review of the identification of species and the detection of infected snails. Acta Tropica, 111, 1-6. doi:10.1016/j.actatropica.2009.02.004
[3] Ogunkanmi, L.A., Oboh, B., Williams, O., Monu, G. and Ogundipe, O.T. (2009) Phylogenetic and genomic elationships in the genus Malus based on RAPDs. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8, 3387-3391.
[4] Kristensen, T.K., Yousif, F. and Raahauge, P. (1999) Molecular characterization of Biomphalaria species in Egypt. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 65, 133-136. doi:10.1093/mollus/65.1.133
[5] Lotfy, W.M., DeJong, R.J., Kader, A.A. and Loker, E.S. (2005) A molecular survey of Biomphalaria in Egypt: Is B. glabrata present? The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 73, 131-139.
[6] Winnepenninckx, B., Backeljau, T. and Wacbier, R. (1993) Extraction of high molecular weight DNA from mollusca, Trends Genetics, 9, 407. doi:10.1016/0168-9525(93)90102-N
[7] Abdel-Hamid, A.H., de Molfetta, J.B., Fernandez, V. and Rodrigues, V. (1999) Genetic variation between susceptible and non-susceptible snails to Schistosoma mansoni infection using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPDs). Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, 41, 291-295. doi:10.1590/S0036-46651999000500005
[8] Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F. and Maniatis, T. (1989) Molecular cloning: A laboratory manual. 2nd Edition, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York.
[9] Nei, M. (1972) Genetic distance between populations. The American Naturalist, 106, 283-292. doi:10.1086/282771
[10] Rohlf, F.J. (2000) NYSYS-pc: Numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system. Version 2.10L, Schanket, New York.
[11] Yousif, F., Haroun, N., Ibrahim, A. and El-Bardicy, S. (1996) Biomphalaria glabrata: A new threat for schistosomiasis transmission. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 26, 191-205.
[12] Hadrys, H., Balick, M. and Schierwater, B. (1992) Applications of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Molecular Ecology, 1, 55-63. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.1992.tb00155.x
[13] Hedrick, P. (1992) Schooting the RAPDs. Nature, 355, 679-680. doi:10.1038/355679a0
[14] Carvalho, S., Caldeira, R.L., Simpson, A.J. and Vidigal, T.H. (2001) Genetic variability and molecular identification of Brazilian Biomphalaria species (Mollusca: Planorbidae). Parasitology, 123, 197-209.
[15] Vidigal, T.H.D.A., Dias Neto, E., Carvalho, O.S., Simpson, A.J.G. (1994). Biomphalaria glabrata: Extensive genetic variation in Brazilian isolates by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Experimental Parasitology, 79, 187-194. doi:10.1006/expr.1994.1078
[16] Hoffman, J.I., Webster, J.P., Ndamba, J. and Woolhouse, M.E. (1998) Extensive genetic variation revealed in adjacent populations of the schistosome intermediate host Biomphalaria pfeifferi from a single river system. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 92, 693-698. doi:10.1080/00034989859159
[17] Langand, J., Théron, A., Pointier, J.P., Delay, B. and Jourdane, J. (1999) Population structure of Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate snail host of Schistosoma mansoni in Guadeloupe Island, using RAPD markers. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 65, 425-433. doi:10.1093/mollus/65.4.425
[18] Larson, S.E., Anderson, P.L., Miller, N.A., Cousin, C.E., Richrads, C.S., Lewis, F.A. and Knight, M. (1996) Use of RAPD PCR to differentiate genetically defined lines of intermediate host Schistosoma mansoni, Biomphalaria glabrata. The Journal of Parasitology, 82, 237-244. doi:10.2307/3284154
[19] Knight, M., Miller, N.A., Patterson, C.N., Rowe, C.G., Michaels, G., Carr, D., Richards, C.S. and Lewis, F.A. (1999) The identification of markers segregating with resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in the snail Biomphalaria glabrata. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA, 96, 1510-1515. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.4.1510
[20] Lewis, F.A., Patterson, C.N. and Grzywacz, C. (2003) Parasite susceptibility phenotypes of F(1) Biomphalaria glabrata progeny derived from interbreeding Schistosoma mansoni resistant and susceptible snails. Parasitology Research, 89, 98-101. doi:10.1007/s00436-002-0730-4
[21] Webster, J.P., Davies, C.M., Hoffman, J.I., Ndamba, J., Noble, L.R. and Woolhouse, M.E. (2001) Population genetics of Biomphalaria pfeifferi in the zimbabwean highveld: Implications for co-evolutionary theory. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 95, 203-214. doi:10.1080/00034980120041062
[22] Oliveira, A.L., Da Silva, D., Zanotti-Magalhaes, E.M., Abdel-Hamid, A.Z. and Ribeiro-Paes, J.T. (2008) Schistosome/mollusk: Genetic compatibility. Genetics and Molecular Research, 7, 518-526. doi:10.4238/vol7-2gmr444
[23] Abu El-Einin, H.M. (2004) Biological studies on different forms of Biomphalaria snails (Pulmonata, Planorbidae) in Egypt, with relation to their molecular genetics and compatibility to infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Ph.D. Thesis, Ain Shams University, Egypt.
[24] Spada, R.G., Silva, D., Abdel-Hamid, A.Z., Sobral, S.S., Zuim, N.R., Zanotti, M.E., Magalhaes, L.A. and Ribeiro, I.T. (2002) Genetic markers between Biomphalaria glabrata snails susceptible and resistant to Schistosoma mansoni infection. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 97, 53-58. doi:10.1590/S0074-02762002000900012

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.