Titanium Oxide Nanorods pH Sensors: Comparison between Voltammetry and Extended Gate Field Effect Transistor Measurements


In recent years there has increased interest in the characterization of titanium oxide nanorods for application in analytical devices. The titanium oxide nanorods (NRTiO) were obtained by hydrothermal reaction with a NaOH solution heated in the autoclave at 150°C for up to 50 h. Experimental data indicate that the prepared nanorods consist of anatase and rutile phases, with a possible interlayer structure. The NRTiO was investigated as pH sensor in the pH range 2 - 12, and the extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET) configuration presented a sensitivity of 49.6 mV/pH. Voltammetric data showed a sensitivity of 47.8 mV/pH. These results indicate that the material is a promising candidate for applications as an EGFET-pH sensor and as a disposable biosensor in the future.

Share and Cite:

Guerra, E. and Mulato, M. (2014) Titanium Oxide Nanorods pH Sensors: Comparison between Voltammetry and Extended Gate Field Effect Transistor Measurements. Materials Sciences and Applications, 5, 459-466. doi: 10.4236/msa.2014.57049.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Miao, Z., Xu, D., Ouyang, J., Guo, G., Zhao, X. and Tang, Y. (2002) Electrochemically Induced Sol-Gel Preparation of Single-Crystalline TiO2 Nanowires. Nano Letters, 2, 717-720.
[2] Limmer, S.J., Chou, T.P. and Cao, G.Z. (2004) A Study on the Growth of TiO2 Nanorods Using Sol Electrophoresis. Journal of Material Science, 39, 895-901.
[3] Kasuga, T., Hiramatsu, M., Hoson, A., Sekino, T. and Niihara, K. (1998) Formation of Titanium Oxide Nanotube. Langmuir, 14, 3160-3163.
[4] Liu, A., Wei, M., Honma, I. and Zhou, H. (2006) Biosensing Properties of Titanate Nanotube Films: Selective Detection of Dopamine in the Presence of Ascorbate and Uric Acid. Advanced Functional Materials, 16, 371-376.
[5] Winquist, F. and Danielsson, B. (1990) Biosensors, A Practical Approach-Semiconductor Devices, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
[6] Vonau, W. and Guth, U. (2006) pH Monitoring: A Review. Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 10, 746-752.
[7] Miao, Y.Q., Chen, J.R., and Fang, K.M. (2005) New Technology for the Detection of pH. Journal Biochemical and Biophysical Methods, 63, 1-9.
[8] Bergveld, P. (2003) Thirty Years of Isfetology: What Happened in the Past 30 Years and What May Happen in the Next 30 Years. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 88, 1-20.
[9] Chou, J.-C., Chiang, J.-L. and Wu, C.-L. (2005) pH and Procaine Sensing Characteristics of Extended-Gate Field-Effect Transistor Based on Indium Tin Oxide Glass. Japanese Journal Applied Physics, 44, 4838-4842.
[10] Chou, J.C. and Tzeng, D.J. (2006) Study on the Characteristics of the Ruthenium Oxide pH Electrode. Rare Metal Materials and Engineering, 35, 256-258.
[11] Silva, G.R., Matsubara, E.Y., Corio, P., Roselen, J.M. and Mulato, M. (2007) Carbon Felt/Carbon Nanotubes/Pani as pH Sensor. Materials Research Society Proceedings, Spring Meeting, 1018, EE1410-EE1411.
[12] Batista, P.D., Mulato, M., Graeff, C.F.D., Fernandez, F.J.R. and Marques, F.D. (2006) SnO2 Extended Gate Field-Effect Transistor as pH Sensor. Brazilian Journal of Physics, 36, 478-481.
[13] Liao, H.-K., Chou, J.-C., Chung, W.-Y., Sun, T.-P. and Hsiung, S.-K. (1998) Study of Amorphous Tin Oxide Thin Films for ISFET Applications. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 50, 104-109.
[14] Batista, P.D. and Mulato, M. (2005) ZnO Extended-Gate Field-Effect Transistors as pH Sensors. Applied Physics Letters, 87, 143508-143510.
[15] Guerra, E.M. and Mulato, M. (2009) Synthesis and Characterization of Vanadium Oxide/Hexadecylamine Membrane and Its Application as pH-EGFET Sensor. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 52, 315-320.
[16] Guerra, E.M., Silva, G.R. and Mulato, M. (2009) Extended Gate Field Effect Transistor Using V2O5 Xerogel Sensing Membrane by Sol-Gel Method. Solid State Science, 11, 456-460.
[17] Guidelli, E.J., Guerra, E.M. and Mulato, M. (2011) Ion Sensing Properties of Vanadium/Tungsten Mixed Oxides. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 125, 833-837.
[18] Guidelli, E.J., Guerra, E.M. and Mulato, M. (2012) V2O5/WO3 Mixed Oxide Films as pH-EGFET Sensor: Sequential Re-Usage and Fabrication Volume Analysis. ECS Journal Solid State Science and Technology, 1, N39-N44.
[19] Diebold, U. (2003) The Surface Science of Titanium Dioxide. Surface Science Reports, 48, 53-229.
[20] Zhang, Y.X., Li, G.H., Jin, Y.X., Zhang, Y., Zhang, J. and Zhang, L.D. (2002) Hydrothermal Synthesis and Photoluminescence of TiO2 Nanowires. Chemical Physics Letters, 365, 300-304.
[21] Ross, C. (2001) Patterned Magnetic Recording Media. Annual Review of Materials Research, 31, 203-235.
[22] Li, W., Ni, C., Lin, H., Huang, C.P. and Shah, S.I. (2004) Size Dependence of Thermal Stability of TiO2 Nanoparticles. Journal of Applied Physics, 96, 6663-6668.
[23] Wang, J., Sun, J. and Bian, X. (2004) Preparation of Oriented TiO2 Nanobelts by Microemulsion Technique. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 379, 7-10.
[24] Du, G.H., Chen, Q., Che, R.C., Yuan, Z.Y. and Peng, L.M. (2001) Preparation and Structure Analysis of Titanium Oxide Nanotubes. Applied Physics Letters, 79, 3702-3704.
[25] Chen, Y.F., Lee, C.Y., Tao, Z.L., Yeng, M.Y. and Chiu, H.T. (2003) Titanium Disulfide Nanotubes as Hydrogen-Storage Materials. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 125, 5284-5285.
[26] Chen, Y.F., Lee, C.Y., Yeng, M.Y. and Chiu, H.T. (2003) Preparing Titanium Oxide with Various Morphologies. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 81, 39-44.
[27] Sander, M.S., C?té, M.J., Gu, W., Kile, B.M. and Tripp, C.P. (2004) Template-Assisted Fabrication of Dense, Aligned Arrays of Titania Nanotubes with Well-Controlled Dimensions on Substrates. Advanced Materials, 16, 2052-2057.
[28] Macák, J.M., Tsuchiya, H. and Schmuki, P. (2005) High-Aspect-Ratio TiO2 Nanotubes by Anodization of Titanium. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 44, 2100-2102.
[29] Mor, G.K., Shankar, K., Paulose, M., Varghese, O.K. and Grimes, C.A. (2005) Enhanced Photocleavage of Water Using Titania Nanotube Arrays. Nano Letters, 5, 191-195.
[30] Yao, B.D., Chan, Y.F., Zhang, X.Y., Zhang, W.F., Yang, Z.Y. and Wang, N. (2003) Formation Mechanism of TiO2 Nanotubes. Applied Physics Letters, 82, 281-283.
[31] Juengsuwattananon, K., Jaroenworaluck, A., Panyathanmaporn, T., Jinawath, S. and Supothina, S. (2007) Effect of Water and Hydrolysis Catalyst on the Crystal Structure of Nanocrystalline TiO2 Powders Prepared by Sol-Gel Method. Physica Status Solidi (A), 204, 1751-1756.
[32] Spurr, R.A. and Myers, H. (1957) Quantitative Analysis of Anatase-Rutile Mixtures with an X-Ray Diffractometer. Analytical Chemistry, 29, 760-762.
[33] Qamar, M., Yoon, C.R., Oh, H.J., Lee, N.H., Park, K., Kim, D.H., Lee, K.S., Lee, W.J. and Kim, S.J. (2008) Preparation and Photocatalytic Activity of Nanotubes Obtained from Titanium Dioxide. Catalysis Today, 131, 3-14.
[34] Sauvet, A.L., Baliteau, S., Lopez, C. and Fabry, P. (2004) Synthesis and Characterization of Sodium Titanates Na2Ti3O7 and Na2Ti6O13. Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 177, 4508-4515.
[35] Marchand, R., Brohan, L. and Tournoux, M. (1980) TiO2(B) a New Form of Titanium Dioxide and the Potassium Octatitanate K2Ti8O17. Materials Research Bulletin, 15, 1129-1133.
[36] Godbole, V.P., Kim, Y.S., Kim, G.S., Dar, M.A. and Shin, H.S. (2006) Synthesis of Titanate Nanotubes and Its Processing by Different Methods. Electrochimica Acta, 52, 1781-1787.
[37] Temple-Boyer, P., Launay, J., Humenyuk, I., Do Conto, T., Martinez, A., Bériet, C. and Grisel, A. (2004) Study of Front-Side Connected Chemical Field Effect Transistor for Water Analysis. Microelectronics Reliability, 44, 443-447.
[38] Walczak, M.M., Dryer, D.A., Jacobson, D.D., Foss, M.G. and Flynn, N.T. (1997) pH Dependent Redox Couple: An Illustration of the Nernst Equation. Journal Chemical Education, 174, 1195-1197.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.