Hydrometallurgical Processing of Manganese Ores: A Review

DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2014.23028   PDF   HTML   XML   10,882 Downloads   13,856 Views   Citations


Hydrometallurgy is the most suitable extractive technique for the extraction and purification of manganese as compared to all other techniques including biometallurgy and pyrometallurgical processes. In the hydrometallurgical processing of manganese from its ore, the leach liquors often contain divalent ions such as iron, manganese, copper, nickel, cobalt and zinc along with other impurities which make manganese very difficult to separate. The processes employed for solution concentration and purification in the hydrometallurgical processing of manganese include precipitation, cementation, solvent extraction and ion exchange. Solvent extraction also proves more efficient and it plays vital roles in the purification and separation of the manganese as compared to all other techniques. A detailed review of the various steps involved in the hydrometal-lurgical manganese processing, concentration and purification processes and newer processes of extraction of manganese from ores and waste materials were discussed.

Share and Cite:

Baba, A. , Ibrahim, L. , Adekola, F. , Bale, R. , Ghosh, M. , Sheik, A. , Pradhan, S. , Ayanda, O. and Folorunsho, I. (2014) Hydrometallurgical Processing of Manganese Ores: A Review. Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 2, 230-247. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2014.23028.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Howe, P.D., Malcolm, H.M. and Dobson, S. (2004) Manganese and Its Compound: Environmental Aspect; Monks Wood, United Kingdom. Concise International Ahemical Assessment, Document 63.
[2] Webb, T.C. (2008) Manganese. New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources; Minerals, Policy and Planning Division Mineral Commodity Profile, No. 1, 8 p.
[3] Tony, C. (2011) Mineral Commodity Report 7. Manganese, Institute of Geological and Nuclear Science Ltd.
[4] (1990) Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. 8th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2730.
[5] Lisa, A.C. (2009) Mineral Industry Surveys. US Geological Survey.
[6] Haghshenas, D.F., Darvishi, D. and Shabesnari, Z.M. (2007) Leaching Recovery of Zinc, Cobalt and Manganese from Zinc Purification Residue. IJE Transaction B, 20, 133-140.
[7] Canterford, J.H. (1985) Sulphuric Acid Leaching of Cobalt Bearing Manganese Wad. Hydrometallurgy, 14, 35-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-386X(85)90004-0
[8] (2010) History of Manganese. International Manganese Institute. Bulletin.
[9] Liew, F.C. (2008) Publication on Pyrometallurgy versus Hydrometallurgy. Engineering Department, TES-AMM, Singapore.
[10] Haines, A.K. and Van Aswegen, P.C. (1990) Process and Engineering Challenges in the Treatment of Refractory Gold Ores. International Deep Mining Conference: Innovations in the Metallurgical Plant, SAIMM, Johannesburg, 103-110.
[11] Boseker, K. (1998) Bioleaching Metal Solubilization by Microorganisms. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 20, 591-604. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6976.1997.tb00340.x
[12] Rawlings, D.E. (1998) Industrial Practice and the Biology of Leaching of Metals from Ores. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 20, 264-274.
[13] Agate, A.D. (1996) Recent Advance in Microbial Mining. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 12, 487-495. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00419462
[14] McNulty, T.P. and Thompson, D.L. (1990) Economic of Bioleaching. In: Ehrlich, H.L. and Brierley, C.L., Eds., Microbial Mineral Leaching, McGraw-Hill Inc., New York, 171-182.
[15] Ehrilch, H.L. (1987) Manganese Oxide Reduction as a Form of Anaerobic Respiration. Geomicrobiology Journal, 5, 423-431. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01490458709385977
[16] Schwartz, W. and Naveke, R. (1980) Biotechnische Laugungarmer erze mit heterotrophen mikroorganismen metal. Jahrg, 34, 847-850.
[17] Ehrlich, H.L. (1976) Manganese as an Energy Source for Bacteria. In: Nriagu, J.O., Ed., Environmental Biolgeochemistry, Ann Harbor Science, Michigan, 633-644.
[18] Toro, L., Papponetti, B., Abbruzzese, C., Marrabini, A. and Duarte, M.Y. (1988) Leaching of Mn2+ from Concentrates of MnO2 by Microorganism. In: Costa, M.S., Duarte, J.C. and Williams, R.A.D., Eds., Microbiology of Extreme Environments and Its Potential for Biotechnology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 395-396.
[19] Papponetti, B., Toro, L., Abbruzzese, C., Marrabini, A. and Duarte, M.Y. (1989) Manganese Leaching from MnO2 Ore by Aspergillus niger: Role of Metabolic Ontermediate. In: Scheiner, B.J., Doyle, F.M. and Kawatra, S.K., Eds., Biotechnology in Minerals and Metal Processing, AIME, Ann Arbor, 33-37.
[20] Abbruzzese, C., Duarte, M.Y., Papponetti, B. and Toro, L. (1990) Biological and Chemical Processing of Low-Grade Manganese Ores. Minerals Engineering, 3, 307-318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0892-6875(90)90126-V
[21] Lovely, D.R. (1994) Dissimilatory Fe (III) and Mn (IV) Reduction. Microbiological Reviews, 55, 259-287.
[22] Nealson, K.H. and Saffarini, D. (1994) Iron and Manganese in Anaerobic Respiration: Environmental Significance, Physiology and Regulation. Annual Review of Microbiology, 48, 311-343. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.mi.48.100194.001523
[23] Young, E., Seung, L., Noh, R., Sukcho, K. and Ryu, H.W. (2001) Leaching of Mn, Co and Ni from Manganese Nodule Using Bioleaching Method, Korea. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 92, 354-359.
[24] Bazhko, O. (2009) Application of Redox Titration Techniques for Analysis of Hydrometallurgical Solution, South Africa. Hydrometallurgy Conference, 457-463.
[25] Haghshenas, D.F., Darvishi, D. and Shabestari, Z.M. (2007) Leaching Recovery of Zinc, Cobalt and Manganese from Zinc Purification Residue, Iran. IJE Transactions B: Applications, 20, 133-140.
[26] Hariprasad, D., Dash, B., Ghosh, M.K. and Anand, S. (2009) Mn Recovery from Medium Grade Ore Using Waste Cellulosic Reductant. Indian Journal of Chemical Technology, 16, 322-327.
[27] Kirk-Othmer (1983) Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Vol. 14. 3rd Edition, 824-895.
[28] Monhemius, A.J. (1977) Precipitation Diagrams for Metal Hydroxides Sulphates, Arsenates and Phosphates. Transac- tions of the Institution of Mining & Metallurgical Section C, 86, C202-C206.
[29] Zhang, W.S. and Cheng, C.Y. (2007) Manganese Metallurgy Review. Part II: Manganese Separation and Recovery from Solution, Australia. Hydrometallurgy, 89, 160-177.
[30] Manson, P.G., Groutsch, J.V., Mayze, R.S. and White, D.R.S. (1997) Process Development and Plant Design for the Cawse Nickel Project. ALTA Metallurgy Service, Perth, Western Melbourne Australia.
[31] Jones, D. and Moore, R. (2001) The Application of the CESL Nickel Process to Laterites. ALTA Metallurgy Services, Melbourne.
[32] Clark, S.J., Donaldson, J.D. and Khan, Z.I. (1996) Heavy Metals in the Environment. Part VI: Recovery of Cobalt Values from Spent Cobalt/Manganese Bromide Oxidation Catalysts. Hydrometallurgy, 40, 381-392. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-386X(95)00007-4
[33] Ferron, C.J. (2003) Selective Precipitation from Nickel Recovery from Ore Leach Solution Containing Co, Fe and Mn. CA Patent No. 2396972.
[34] Park, K.H., Kim, H.I. and Das, R.P. (2005) Selective Acid Leaching of Nickel and Cobalt from Precipitated Manga- nese Hydroxide in the Presence of Chlorine Dioxide. Hydrometallurgy, 78, 271-277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hydromet.2005.05.001
[35] Kononova, O.N., Kholmogorov, A.G., Kachin, S.V., Mytykh, O.V., Kononov, Y.S., Kalyakina, O.P. and Pashkov, G.L. (2000) Ion Exchange Recovery of Nickel from Manganese Nitrate Solutions. Hydrometallurgy, 54, 107-115.
[36] Diniz, C.V., Ciminelli, V.S.T. and Doyle, F.M. (2005) The Use of the Chelating Resin Dowex M-4195 in the Absorp- tion of Selected Heavy Metal Ions from Manganese Solutions. Hydrometallurgy, 78, 147-155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hydromet.2004.12.007
[37] Sato, T. and Nakamura, T. (1985) Solvent Extraction of Divalent Metals from Sulphuric Acid Solutions by 312.
[38] Thakur, N.V. (1998) Extraction Studies of Base Metals (Mn, Cu, Co and Ni) Using the Extractant 2-Ethylhexyl-2- Ethylhexyl Phosphonic Acid. PC88A. Hydrometallurgy, 48, 125-131.
[39] Shibata, J., Izutani, M., Kuwahara, H. and Nishimura, S. (1974) Solvent Extraction of Manganese with Versatic Acid 911. Nippon Kinzoku Gakkaishi, 38, 847-852.
[40] Shibata, J. and Nishimura, S. (1975) Studies on the Extraction Equilibria of Cu, Ni, Co and Mn with Versatic Acid 911. Transactions of the Japan Institute of Metals, 20, 111-118.
[41] Mukai, S., Shibata, J. and Nishimura, S. (1975) Effect of Temperature on the Solvent of Metal Ions with Versatic Acid 911. Nippon Kinzoku Gakkaishi, 39, 976-981.
[42] Dry, M.J., Irio, G., Jacobs, D.F., Cole, P.M., Feather, A.M., Sole, K.C., Engelbrecht, J. and Matchett, K.C. (1998) Cu/Co Tailings Treatment Project, Democratic Republic of Congo. ALTA Nickel/Cobalt Conference, ALTA, Metallurgical Services, Melbourne.
[43] Feather, A.M., Sole, K.C. and Dreisinger, D.B. (1999) Pilot-Plant Evaluation of Manganese Removal and Cobalt Puri- fication by Solvent Extraction. ISEC: International Solvent Extraction Conference, 2, 1443-1448.
[44] Hoh, Y.C., Chuang, W.S., Lee, B.D. and Chang, C.C. (1984) The Separation of Manganese from Cobalt by D2EHPA. Hydrometallurgy, 40, 65-76.
[45] Cheng, C.Y. (1999) Separation of Manganese from Nickel and Cobalt by Solvent Extraction. Nickel/Cobalt Pressure Leaching and Hydrometallurgy Forum, ALTA Metallurgical Services, Melbourne.
[46] Cheng, C.Y. (2000) Purification of Synthetic Laterite Leach Solution by Solvent Extraction Using D2EHPA. Hydrometallurgy, 56, 369-386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-386X(00)00095-5
[47] Dreisinger, D.B. and Cooper, W.C. (1984) The Solvent Extraction Separation of Cobalt and Nickel Using 2-Ethylhexyl Phosphonic Acid Mono-2-Ethylhexyl Ester. Hydrometallurgy, 56, 369-386.
[48] Taylor, A. and Cairns, D. (1997) Technical Development of the Bulog Laterite Treatment Project. Nickel and Cobalt Pressure Leaching and Hydrometallurgy Forum, ALTA Metallurgical Services, Melbourne.
[49] Hubicki, Z. and Hubicka, H. (1996) Studies on the Extraction Process of Nickel (II) Sulphate Purification Using Cya- nex 272. Hydrometallurgy, 40, 65-76.
[50] Cole, P.M. (2002) The Introduction of Solvent-Extraction Steps during Upgrading of a Cobalt Refinery. Hydrometallurgy, 64, 69-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-386X(02)00013-0
[51] Devi, N.B., Nathsarma, K.C. and Chakravortty, V. (2000) Separation of Divalent Manganese and Cobalt Ions from Sulphate Solutions Using Sodium Salts of D2EHPA, PC88A and Cyanex 272. Hydrometallurgy, 54, 117-131.
[52] Li, J.H., Li, X.H., Hu, Q.Y., Wang, Z.X., Zheng, J.C., Wu, L. and Zhang, L.X. (2009) Study of Extraction and Purifi- cation of Ni, Co and Mn from Spent Battery Material. Hydrometallurgy, 99, 7-12.
[53] Adina, B., Iovi, A. and Negrea, P. (2005) Studies Concerning the Possibilities of Manganese Recovery from Steel Slag by HCl and HNO3 Extraction. Chemical Bulletin of Politehnica University of Timisoara, 50, 130-133.
[54] Song, J.J., Zhu, G.C., Zhang, P. and Zhao, Y.N. (2010) Reduction of Low-Grade Manganese Oxide Ore by Biomass Roasting, China. Acta Metallurgica Sinica, 23, 223-229.
[55] Yuan, M., Chen, K. and Qiu, G. (2000) Study on Process for Preparation of Active Manganese Dioxide from Natural Manganese Ore. (3) Oxidation and Recovery of Manganese (II) Ion in Leaching Solution. Multipurpose Utilization of Mineral Resources, 1, 16-18.
[56] Cawlfield, D.W. and Ward, L.R. (1995) Integrated Process of Using Hydrochloric Acid to Separate Zinc Oxide and Manganese Oxide. US Patent No. 5411643.
[57] Wang, Y. and Zhou, C. (2002) Hydrometallurgical Process for Recovery of Cobalt from Zinc Plant Residue. Hydrometallurgy, 63, 225-234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-386X(01)00213-4
[58] Kono, Y., Mizota, T. and Fujii, Y. (1986) A Precipitation Separation Method for Copper, Nickel, and Cobalt Recovery from Sulfurous Acid Leach Liquor of Sea Manganese Nodules. Nippon Kogyo Kaishi, 102, 585-590.
[59] Ritcey, G.M. and Lucas, B.H. (1971) Purification of Manganese Solutions Containing Copper and Zinc by Liquid- Liquid Extraction Using Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phosphoric Acid. Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, 10, 223-228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/cmq.1971.10.3.223
[60] Okajima, Y. (1977) Process for Treating Manganese Nodules. US Patent No. 4029498.
[61] Bolton, G.L., Sefton, V.B. and Zubryckyj, N. (1982) Removal of Manganese and Chloride Ions from Aqueous Acidic Zinc Sulfate Solutions for the Recovery of Zinc. EP Patent No. 66024.
[62] Su, H.F., Wen, Y.X., Wang, F., Sun, Y.Y. and Tong, Z.F. (2008) Reductive Leaching of Manganese from Low-Grade Manganese Ore in H2SO4 Using Cane Molasses as Reductant, China. Hydrometallurgy, 93, 136-139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hydromet.2008.01.001
[63] Pagnanelli, F., Furlani, G., Ferella, F., De Michelis, I., Beolchini, F., Veglio, F. and Toro, L. (2005) Recovery of Zinc and Manganese from Spent Batteries by Different Leaching Systems. Italy.
[64] Yuksel, A., Seda, K. and Julide, K. (2007) Dissolution Kinetics of Calcinated Manganese Ore in Acetic Acids Solutions. C. B. U. Journal of Science, 3, 81-88.
[65] Adekola, F.A., Baba, A.A., Bale, R.B., Abdus-Salam, N., Eletta, O.A.A. and Olajide, F.T. (2009) Lixiviation of Man- ganiferrous Aluminosilicate Mineral in Hydrochloric Acid. African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 3, 183- 188.
[66] Zhang, P., Yokoyama, T., Itabashi, O., Suzuki, T.M. and Inoue, K. (1998) Hydrometallurgical Process for Recovery of Metal Values from Spent Lithium-Ion Secondary Batteries. Hydrometallurgy, 47, 259-271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-386X(97)00050-9
[67] Dreisinger, D., Gluck, T., Marte, K., Hamm, R., Molnar, R., Lu, J. and Xie, F. (2010) The Recovery of Zn, Co and Mn from Baja Minig Corp’s EL Boleo Ore Body. TMS, Hoboken, 623-636.
[68] Gega, J. and Walkowiak, W. (2011) Leaching of Zinc and Manganese from Used-Up Zinc-Batteries Using Aqueous Sulphuric Acid Solutions, Poland. Physicochemical Problems of Mineral Processing, 46, 155-162.
[69] Billiton, B.H.P. (2011) Roskill, CRU. http://www.ideasfirst.in

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.