Hydrometallurgical Processing of Manganese Ores: A Review
Alafara A. Baba, Lateef Ibrahim, Folahan A. Adekola, Rafiu B. Bale, Malay K. Ghosh, Abdul R. Sheik, Sangita R. Pradhan, Olushola S. Ayanda, Ismail O. Folorunsho
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, South Africa.
Department of Geology and Mineral Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.
Department of Industrial Chemistry, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.
Department of Industrial Chemistry, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria; Department of Geology and Mineral Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.
Hydro & Electrometallurgy Department, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar, India.
DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2014.23028   PDF    HTML   XML   16,763 Downloads   26,281 Views   Citations


Hydrometallurgy is the most suitable extractive technique for the extraction and purification of manganese as compared to all other techniques including biometallurgy and pyrometallurgical processes. In the hydrometallurgical processing of manganese from its ore, the leach liquors often contain divalent ions such as iron, manganese, copper, nickel, cobalt and zinc along with other impurities which make manganese very difficult to separate. The processes employed for solution concentration and purification in the hydrometallurgical processing of manganese include precipitation, cementation, solvent extraction and ion exchange. Solvent extraction also proves more efficient and it plays vital roles in the purification and separation of the manganese as compared to all other techniques. A detailed review of the various steps involved in the hydrometal-lurgical manganese processing, concentration and purification processes and newer processes of extraction of manganese from ores and waste materials were discussed.

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Baba, A. , Ibrahim, L. , Adekola, F. , Bale, R. , Ghosh, M. , Sheik, A. , Pradhan, S. , Ayanda, O. and Folorunsho, I. (2014) Hydrometallurgical Processing of Manganese Ores: A Review. Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 2, 230-247. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2014.23028.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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