Mothers Characters and Adolescence Depression


The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between forgiveness and rumination of mothers with depression symptoms in adolescent girls of Isfahan high schools. The sample consisted of 260 high school’s students along with their mothers who were selected through multistage cluster sampling method. The research instruments were depression, forgiveness, and rumination questionnaires. The data were analyzed by statistical method including Pearson correlation and multiple regressions. The results indicated that rumination of mothers has a significant and positive relationship with depression of adolescents and forgiveness of mothers has a negative and significant relationship with depression. The Stepwise regression results indicated that rumination is able to predict depression. Regarding to results, it seems that decrease of mothers’ rumination can be efficient in improving of depression of adolescent.

Share and Cite:

Jafari, F. , Yousefi, Z. and Manshaee, G. (2014) Mothers Characters and Adolescence Depression. Open Journal of Depression, 3, 45-51. doi: 10.4236/ojd.2014.32010.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Berry, J. W., & Worthington, E. L. (2001). Forgivingness, Relationship Quality, Stress While Imagining Relationship Events, and Physical and Mental Health. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48, 447-455.
[2] Berry, J. W., Worthington, E. L., O’Connor, L. E., Parrott, L., & Wade, N. G. (2005). Forgivingness, Vengeful Rumination, and Affective Traits. Journal of Personality, 73, 183-225.
[3] Brennan, A. P., Hammen, C., Andersen, M. J., Bor, W., Najman, J. M., & Williams, G. M. (2000). Chronicity, Severity, and Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms: Relationships with Child Outcomes at Age Five. Developmental Psychology, 36, 759-766.
[4] Brown, R. P., & Phillips, A. (2005). Letting Bygones Be Bygones: Further Evidence for the Validity of the Tendency to Forgive Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 627-638.
[5] Ciesla, J. A., & Roberts, J. E. (2002). Self-Directed thought and Response to Treatment for Depression: A Preliminary Investigation. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 16, 435-453.
[6] Costello, E. J., Mustillo, S., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G., & Angold, A. (2003). Prevalence and Development of Psychiatric Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 837-844.
[7] Cox, S. J., Mezulis, A. H., & Hyde, J. S. (2010). The Influence of Child Gender Role and Maternal Feedback to Child Stress on the Emergence of the Gender Difference in Depressive Rumination in Adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 46, 842-852.
[8] Davies, P. T., & Windle, M. (1997). Gender-Specific Pathways between Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Family Discord, and Adolescent Adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 33, 657-668.
[9] Dopheide, J. A. (2006). Recognizing and Treating Depression in Children and Adolescents. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 63, 233-241.
[10] Duggal, S., Carlson, E. A., Sroufe, L. A., & Egeland, B. (2001). Depressive Symptomatology in Childhood and Adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 143-164.
[11] Flett, G. L., Madorsky, D., Hewitt, P. L., & Heisel, M. J. (2002). Perfectionism Cognitions, Rumination, and Psychological Distress. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 20, 33-47.
[12] Goodman, S. H. & Gotlib, I. H. (Eds.) (2002) Children of Depressed Parents: Alternative Pathways to Risk for Psychopathology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.
[13] Grimbos, T., Granic, I., & Pepler, D. (2013). The Relation between Co-Rumination, Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Psychopathology. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 35, 335-345.
[14] Hammen, C. (2002). Context of Stress in Families of Children with Depressed Parents. In S. H. Goodman, & I. H. Gotlib (Eds.), Children of Depressed Parents: Mechanisms of Risk and Implications for Treatment (pp. 175-199). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
[15] Hammen, C., & Brennan, P. (2001). Depressed Adolescents of Depressed and Non-Depressed Mothers: Tests of an Interpersonal Impairment Hypothesis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 284-294.
[16] Hammen, C., Shih, J., & Brennan, P. A. (2004). Intergenerational Transmission of Depression: Test of an Interpersonal Stress Model in a Community Sample. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 511-522.
[17] Hankin, B. L. (2006). Adolescent Depression: Description, Causes, and Interventions. Epilepsy & Behavior, 8, 102-114.
[18] Hill, J. P., Holmbeck, G. N., Marlow, L., Green, T. M., & Lynch, M. E. (1985). Menarcheal Status and Parent-Child Relations in Families of Seventh-Grade Girls. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 14, 301-316.
[19] Huntsman, L. (2008). Parents with Mental Health Issues: Consequences for Children and Effectiveness of Interventions Designed to Assist Children and Their Families. Literature Review, p. 1-53.
[20] Lam, D., Smith, N., Checkley, S., Rijsdijk, F., & Sham, P. (2003). Effect of Neuroticism, Response Style and Information Processing on Depression Severity in a Clinically Depressed Sample. Psychological Medicine, 33, 469-479.
[21] Lawler-Row, K. A., & Piferi, R. L. (2006). The Forgiving Personality: Describing a Life Well Lived? Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 1009-1020.
[22] Lovejoy, M. C., Graczyk, P. A., O’Hare, E., & Neuman, G. (2000). Maternal Depression and Parenting Behavior: A Meta- Analytic Review. Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 561-592.
[23] Lyubomirsky, S., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1995). Effects of Self-Focused Rumination on Negative Thinking and Interpersonal Problem Solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 176-190.
[24] Lyubomirsky, S., Tucker, K. L., Caldwell, N. D., & Berg, K. (1999). Why Ruminators Are Poor Problem Solvers: Clues from the Phenomenology of Dysphoric Rumination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1041-1060.
[25] McCullough, M. E., Rachal, K. C., Sandage, S. J., Worthington Jr., E. L., Brown, S. W., & Hight, T. L. (1998). Interpersonal Forgiving in Close Relationships II: Theoretical Elaboration and Measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psycho- logy, 75, 1586-1603.
[26] Montemayor, R. (1983). Parents and Adolescents in Conflict: All Families Some of the Time and Some Families Most of the Time. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 3, 83-103.
[27] Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to Depression and Their Effects on the Duration of Depressive Episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 569-582.
[28] Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Davis, C. G. (1999). “Thanks for Sharing That”: Ruminators and Their Social Support Networks. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 801-814.
[29] Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Jackson, B. (2001). Mediators of the Gender Difference in Rumination. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 25, 37-47.
[30] Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Larson, J., & Grayson, C. (1999). Explaining the Gender Difference in Depressive Symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1061-1072.
[31] Orcutt, H. K. (2006). The Prospective Relationship of Interpersonal Forgiveness and Psychological Distress Symptoms among College Women. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53, 350-361.
[32] Robinson, L. A., & Alloy, L. B. (2003). Negative Cognitive Styles and Stress-Reactive Rumination Interact to Predict Depression: A Prospective Study. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 275-292.
[33] Shugart, M. A., & Lopez, E. M. (2002). Depression in Children and Adolescents. When “Moodiness” Merits Special Attention. Postgraduate Medicine, 112, 53-6, 59-61.
[34] Spasojevic, J., & Alloy, L. B. (2001). Rumination as a Common Mechanism Relating Depressive Risk Factor to Depression. Emotion, 1, 25-37.
[35] Steinberg, L. (1987). Recent Research on the Family at Adolescence: The Extent and Nature of Sex Differences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 191-197.
[36] Steinberg, L. (1988). Reciprocal Relation between Parent-Child Distance and Pubertal Maturation. Developmental Psychology, 24, 122-128.
[37] Thompson, L. Y., & Snyder, C. R. (2003). Measuring Forgiveness. In S. J. Lopez, & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Positive Psychological Assessment: A Handbook of Models and Measures (pp. 301-312). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
[38] Thompson, L. Y., Snyder, C. R., Hoffman, L., Michael, S. T., Rasmussen, H. N., Billings, L. S., et al. (2005). Dispositional Forgiveness of Self, Others, and Situations. Journal of Personality, 73, 313-360.
[39] Verhaeghen, P., Joormann, J., & Khan, R. (2005). Why We Sing the Blues: The Relation between Self-Reflective Rumination, Mood, and Creativity. Emotion, 5, 226-232.
[40] Wang, L. & Crane, R. D. (2001). The Relationship between Marital Satisfaction, Marital Stability, Nuclear Family Triangulation and Childhood Depression. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 29, 337-341.
[41] Yousefi, Z., Abedi, M. R, Bahrami, F., & Mehrabi, H. A. (2009). Construction and Standardization of Depressive Rumination Inventory. Journal of Psychology, 49, 54.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.