Share This Article:

Long-Term Electrophysiological and Behavioral Analysis on the Improvement of Visual Working Memory Load, Training Gains, and Transfer Benefits

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:687KB) PP. 234-246
DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.45025    3,471 Downloads   5,163 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Recent evidence demonstrates that with training, one can enhance visual working memory (VWM) capacity and attention over time in the near transfer tasks. Not only do these studies reveal the characteristics of VWM load and the influences of training, they may also provide insights into developing effective rehabilitation for patients with VWM deficiencies. However, few studies have investigated VWM over extended periods of time and evaluated transfer benefits on non-trained tasks. Here, we combined behavioral and electroencephalographical approaches to investigate VWM load, training gains, and transfer benefits. Our results reveal that VWM capacity is directly correlated to the difference of event-related potential waveforms. In particular, the “magic number 4” can be observed through the contralateral delay amplitude and the average capacity is 3.25-item over 15 participants. Furthermore, our findings indicate that VWM capacity can be improved through training; and after training exercises, participants from the training group are able to dramatically improve their performance. Likewise, the training effects on non-trained tasks can also be observed at the 12th week after training. Therefore, we conclude that participants can benefit from training gains, and augmented VWM capacity sustained over long periods of time on specific variety of tasks.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Kuo, C. , Zhang, C. , Rissman, R. and Chiu, A. (2014) Long-Term Electrophysiological and Behavioral Analysis on the Improvement of Visual Working Memory Load, Training Gains, and Transfer Benefits. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 4, 234-246. doi: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.45025.

References

[1] Jonides, J., Lewis, R.L., et al. (2008) The Mind and Brain of Short-Term Memory. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 193-224.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093615
[2] Luria, R. and Vogel, E.K. (2011) Visual Search Demands Dictate Reliance on Working Memory Storage. Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 6199-6207.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6453-10.2011
[3] Brehmer, Y., Westerberg, H. and Backman, L. (2012) Working-Memory Training in Younger and Older Adults: Training Gains, Transfer, and Maintenance. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 63.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2012.00063
[4] Jeneson, A., Wixted, J.T., Hopkins, R.O. and Squire, L.R. (2012) Visual Working Memory Capacity and the Medial Temporal Lobe. Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 3584-3589.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6444-11.2012
[5] Van Ewijk, H., Heslenfeld, D.J., et al. (2013) Visuospatial Working Memory in ADHD Patients, Unaffected Siblings, and Healthy Controls. Journal of Attention Disorders, 18, 369-378.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1087054713482582
[6] Haut, K.M., Lim, K.O. and MacDonald 3rd, A. (2010) Prefrontal Cortical Changes Following Cognitive Training in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia: Effects of Practice, Generalization, and Specificity. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35, 1850-1859.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2010.52
[7] Deserno, L., Sterzer, P., Wustenberg, T., Heinz, A. and Schlagenhauf, F. (2012) Reduced Prefrontal-Parietal Effective Connectivity and Working Memory Deficits in Schizophrenia. Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 12-20.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3405-11.2012
[8] Zinke, K., Zeintl, M., Eschen, A., Herzog, C. and Kliegel, M. (2012) Potentials and Limits of Plasticity Induced by Working Memory Training in Old-Old Age. Gerontology, 58, 79-87.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000324240
[9] Zhang, C., Rodriguez, C., Spaulding, J., Aw, T.Y. and Feng, J. (2012) Age-Dependent and Tissue-Related Glutathione Redox Status in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 28, 655-66.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-2011-111244
[10] Zhang, C., Rodriguez, C., Circu, M.L., Aw, T.Y. and Feng, J. (2011) S-Glutathionyl Quantification in the Attomole Range Using Glutaredoxin-3-Catalyzed Cysteine Derivatization and Capillary Gel Electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 401, 2165-2175.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-011-5311-x
[11] Zhang, C., Nestorova, G., Rissman, R.A. and Feng, J. (2013) Detection and Quantification of 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine in Alzheimer’s Trans-genic Mouse Urine Using Capillary Electrophoresis. Electrophoresis, 34, 2268-2274.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.201300036
[12] Berry, A.S., Zanto, T.P., et al. (2010) The Influence of Perceptual Training on Working Memory in Older Adults. PLoS One, 5, e11537.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011537
[13] Gold, J.M., Wilk, C.M., McMahon, R.P., Buchanan, R.W. and Luck, S.J. (2003) Working Memory for Visual Features and Conjunctions in Schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 61-71.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.112.1.61
[14] Klingberg, T. (2010) Training and Plasticity of Working Memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14, 317-324.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2010.05.002
[15] Olesen, P.J., Westerberg, H. and Klingberg, T. (2004) Increased Prefrontal and Parietal Activity after Training of Working Memory. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 75-79.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn1165
[16] Brady, T.F., Konkle, T. and Alvarez, G.A. (2011) A Review of Visual Memory Capacity: Beyond Individual Items and toward Structured Representations. Journal of Vision, 11, Article No. 4.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/11.5.4
[17] Ikkai, A., McCollough, A.W. and Vogel, E.K. (2010) Contralateral Delay Activity Provides a Neural Measure of the Number of Representations in Visual Working Memory. Journal of Neurophysiology, 103, 1963-1968.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00978.2009
[18] Tucker, D.M. (1993) Spatial Sampling of Head Electrical Fields: The Geodesic Sensor Net. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 87, 154-163.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0013-4694(93)90121-B
[19] Ferree, T.C., Luu, P., Russell, G.S. and Tucker, D.M. (2001) Scalp Electrode Impedance, Infection Risk, and EEG Data Quality. Clinical Neurophysiology, 112, 536-544.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1388-2457(00)00533-2
[20] Jung, T.P., Makeig, S., Westerfield, M., Townsend, J., Courchesne, E., et al. (2000) Removal of Eye Activity Artifacts from Visual Event-Related Potentials in Normal and Clinical Subjects. Clinical Neurophysiology, 111, 1745-1758.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1388-2457(00)00386-2
[21] Delorme, A. and Makeig, S. (2004) EEGLAB: An Open Source Toolbox for Analysis of Single-Trial EEG Dynamics Including Independent Component Analysis. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 134, 9-21.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2003.10.009
[22] Debener, S., Ullsperger, M., Siegel, M., Fiehler, K., von Cramon, D.Y., et al. (2005) Trial-By-Trial Coupling of Concurrent Electroencephalogram and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Identifies the Dynamics of Performance Monitoring. The Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 11730-11737.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3286-05.2005
[23] Kuo, C.C., Knight, J.L., Dressel, C.A. and Chiu, A.W. (2012) Non-Invasive BCI for the Decoding of Intended Arm Reaching Movement in Prosthetic Limb Control. American Journal of Biomedical Engineering, 2, 155-162.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5923/j.ajbe.20120204.02
[24] Kuo, C.C., Lin, W.S., Dressel, C.A. and Chiu, A.W. (2011) Classification of Intended Motor Movement Using Surface EEG Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition. 2011 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Boston, 30 August - 3 September 2011, 6281-6284.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IEMBS.2011.6091550
[25] Vogel, E.K. and Machizawa, M.G. (2004) Neural Activity Predicts Individual Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity. Nature, 428, 748-751.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature02447
[26] Carlisle, N.B., Arita, J.T., Pardo, D. and Woodman, G.F. (2011) Attentional Templates in Visual Working Memory. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 9315-9322.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1097-11.2011
[27] Itier, R.J. and Taylor, M.J. (2004) Effects of Repetition and Configural Changes on the Development of Face Recognition Processes. Developmental Science, 7, 469-487.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2004.00367.x
[28] Rouder, J.N., Morey, R.D., Morey, C.C. and Cowan, N. (2011) How to Measure Working Memory Capacity in the Change Detection Paradigm. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18, 324-330.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13423-011-0055-3
[29] Pashler, H. (1988) Familiarity and Visual Change Detection. Perception & Psychophysics, 44, 369-378.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03210419
[30] Cowan, N. (2001) The Magical Number 4 in Short-Term Memory: A Reconsideration of Mental Storage Capacity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24, 87-114.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X01003922
[31] Luck, S.J. and Vogel, E.K. (1997) The Capacity of Visual Working Memory for Features and Conjunctions. Nature, 390, 279-281.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/36846
[32] Gevins, A., Smith, M.E., McEvoy, L. and Yu, D. (1997) High-Resolution EEG Mapping of Cortical Activation Related to Working Memory: Effects of Task Difficulty, Type of Processing, and Practice. Cerebral Cortex, 7, 374-385.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/7.4.374
[33] Pratt, N., Willoughby, A. and Swick, D. (2011) Effects of Working Memory Load on Visual Selective Attention: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 5, 57.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2011.00057
[34] Fukuda, K., Awh, E. and Vogel, E.K. (2010) Discrete Capacity Limits in Visual Working Memory. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 20, 177-182.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2010.03.005
[35] Emrich, S.M., Al-Aidroos, N., Pratt, J. and Ferber, S. (2009) Visual Search Elicits the Electrophysiological Marker of Visual Working Memory. PLoS ONE, 4, e8042.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008042
[36] Hollingworth, A. and Hwang, S. (2013) The Relationship between Visual Working Memory and Attention: Retention of Precise Colour Information in the Absence of Effects on Perceptual Selection. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 368, Article ID: 20130061.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0061
[37] Logan, G.D. (2002) An Instance Theory of Attention and Memory. Psychological Review, 109, 376-400.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.109.2.376
[38] Harrison, T.L., Shipstead, Z., Hicks, K.L., Hambrick, D.Z., Redick, T.S., et al. (2013) Working Memory Training May Increase Working Memory Capacity but Not Fluid Intelligence. Psychological Science, 24, 2409-2419.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797613492984
[39] Shipstead, Z., Hicks, K.L. and Engle, R.W. (2012) Cogmed Working Memory Training: Does the Evidence Support the Claims? Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 1, 185-193.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmac.2012.06.003
[40] Rueda, M.R., Rothbart, M.K. McCandliss, B.D. Saccomanno, L. and Posner, M.I. (2005) Training, Maturation, and Genetic Influences on the Development of Executive Attention. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 14931-14936.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0506897102
[41] Holmes, J., Gathercole, S.E., Place, M., Dunning, A.L., Hilton, K.A., et al. (2010) Working Memory Deficits Can Be Overcome: Impacts of Training and Medication on Working Memory in Children with ADHD. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24, 827-836.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acp.1589
[42] Zehnder, F., Martin, M., Altgassen, M. and Clare, L. (2009) Memory Training Effects in Old Age as Markers of Plasticity: A Meta-Analysis. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 27, 507-520.
[43] Richmond, L.L., Morrison, A.B., Chein, J.M. and Olson, I.R. (2011) Working Memory Training and Transfer in Older Adults. Psychology and Aging, 26, 813-822.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0023631
[44] Zhang, C., Kuo, C.C., Chiu, A.W. and Feng, J. (2012) Prediction of S-Glutathionylated Proteins Progression in Alzheimer’s Transgenic Mouse Model Using Principle Component Analysis. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 30, 919-934.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-2012-120028
[45] Gazzaley, A., Clapp, W., Kelley, J., McEvoy, K., Knight, R.T., et al. (2008) Age-Related Top-Down Suppression Deficit in the Early Stages of Cortical Visual Memory Processing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 13122-13126.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0806074105
[46] Schulz, H., übelacker, T., Keil, J., Müller, N. and Weisz, N. (2013) Now I Am Ready—Now I Am Not: The Influence of Pre-TMS Oscillations and Corticomuscular Coherence on Motor-Evoked Potentials. Cerebral Cortex, Published Online.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bht024
[47] Zanto, T.P., Rubens, M.T., Thangavel, A. and Gazzaley, A. (2011) Causal Role of the Prefrontal Cortex in Top-Down Modulation of Visual Processing and Working Memory. Nature Neuroscience, 14, 656-661.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn.2773
[48] Clapp, W.C., Rubens, M.T., Sabharwal, J. and Gazzaley, A. (2011) Deficit in Switching between Functional Brain Networks Underlies the Impact of Multitasking on Working Memory in Older Adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 7212-7217.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1015297108
[49] Gates, N. and Valenzuela, M. (2010) Cognitive Exercise and Its Role in Cognitive Function in Older Adults. Current Psychiatry Reports, 12, 20-27.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11920-009-0085-y
[50] Palva, J.M., Monto, S., Kulashekhar, S. and Palva, S. (2010) Neuronal Synchrony Reveals Working Memory Networks and Predicts Individual Memory Capacity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 7580-7585.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0913113107
[51] Luck, S.J. and Vogel, E.K. (2013) Visual Working Memory Capacity: From Psychophysics and Neurobiology to Individual Differences. Trends in Cognitive Science, 17, 391-400.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2013.06.006
[52] Miller, E.K. and Cohen, J.D. (2001) An Integrative Theory of Prefrontal Cortex Function. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24, 167-202.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.neuro.24.1.167
[53] Barinaga, M. (1997) New Imaging Methods Provide a Better View into the Brain. Science, 276, 1974-1976.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.276.5321.1974
[54] Dahlin, E., Neely, A.S., Larsson, A., Backman, L. and Nyberg, L. (2008) Transfer of Learning after Updating Training Mediated by the Striatum. Science, 320, 1510-1512.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1155466
[55] Moore, C.D., Cohen, M.X. and Ranganath, C. (2006) Neural Mechanisms of Expert Skills in Visual Working Memory. The Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 11187-11196.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1873-06.2006
[56] Zimmer, H.D., Popp, C., Reith, W. and Krick, C. (2012) Gains of Item-Specific Training in Visual Working Memory and Their Neural Correlates. Brain Research, 1466, 44-55.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2012.05.019
[57] Mitchell, D.J. and Cusack, R. (2011) The Temporal Evolution of Electromagnetic Markers Sensitive to the Capacity Limits of Visual Short-Term Memory. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 5, 18.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2011.00018

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.