Analyzing Internal Stakeholders’ Salience in Product Development

DOI: 10.4236/ti.2014.52011   PDF   HTML     3,585 Downloads   4,976 Views   Citations


Many companies apply Design for X principles to consider production and product lifecycle cost implications in the early phase of product development. In these companies, representatives of different Design for X disciplines form a specific group of internal stakeholders. This single case study constructs a stakeholder salience assessment framework and uses the framework to analyze internal stakeholders’ salience in product development in the case company. As the main result, the compared stakeholders are sequenced and their relative saliences are valued and visualized. In that single case, product management representatives perceived Design for Testing as clearly the most salient stakeholder being four times more salient than Design for Packaging. The framework and assessment procedure are applicable to use in other contexts and companies. This study exemplifies usage of the framework but the results are not generalizable. After salience assessment a company may take corrective actions to increase or decrease the salience of specific stakeholder group, to disband an internal stakeholder group, to consolidate some stakeholder groups together, or to segregate a Design for X group into several groups. The novel approach of this study is to apply the stakeholder salience assessment framework in product development context.

Share and Cite:

Kinnunen, T. , Aapaoja, A. and Haapasalo, H. (2014) Analyzing Internal Stakeholders’ Salience in Product Development. Technology and Investment, 5, 106-115. doi: 10.4236/ti.2014.52011.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Ulrich, K.T. and Eppinger, S.D. (2008) Product Design and Development. 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.
[2] Bralla, J.G. (1996) Design for Excellence. McGraw-Hill, New York.
[3] Kuo, T.C., Huang, S.H. and Zhang, H.C. (2001) Design for Manufacture and Design for “X”: Concepts, Applications, and Perspectives. Computers and Industrial Engineering, 41, 241-260.
[4] Asiedu, Y. and Gu, P. (1998) Product Life Cycle Cost Analysis: State of the Art Review. International Journal of Production Research, 36, 883-908.
[5] Freeman, E.R. (1984) Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Pitman Publishing, Marshfield.
[6] Mitchell, R.K., Agle, B.R. and Wood, D.J. (1997) Toward a Theory of Stakeholder Identification and Salience: Defining the Principle of Who and What Really Counts. The Academy of Management Review, 22, 853-886.
[7] Olsen, J.R., Harmsen, H. and Friis, A. (2008) Linking Quality Goals and Product Development Competences. Food Quality and Preference, 19, 33-42.
[8] Cooper, R.G. and Kleinschmidt, E.J. (2007) Winning Businesses in Product Development: The Critical Success Factors. Research Technology Management, 50, 52-66.
[9] Olander, S. (2007) Stakeholder Impact Analyzis in Construction Project Management. Construction Management and Economics, 25, 277-287.
[10] Meerkam, H. and Koch, M. (2004) Design for X. In: Clarkson, J. and Eckert, C., Eds., Design Process Improvement: A Review of Current Practice, Springer, New York.
[11] Huang, G.Q. (1996) Implementing Design for X Tools. In: Huang, G.Q., Ed., Design for X: Concurrent Engineering Imperatives, Chapman & Hall, London.
[12] Lehto, J., Harkonen, J., Haapasalo, H., Belt, P., Mottonen, M. and Kuvaja, P. (2011) Benefits of DfX in Requirements Engineering. Technology and Investment, 2, 27-37.
[13] Aaltonen, K. and Kujala, J. (2010) A Project Lifecycle Perspective on Stakeholder Influence Strategies in Global Projects. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 26, 381-397.
[14] Aapaoja, A., Haapasalo, H. and Soderstrom, P. (2013) Early Stakeholder Involvement in the Project Definition Phase: Case Renovation. ISRN Industrial Engineering, 2013, Article ID: 953915.
[15] Olander, S. (2007) Stakeholder Impact Analysis in Construction Project Management. Construction Management and Economics, 25, 277-287.
[16] Olander, S. and Landin, A. (2005) Evaluation of Stakeholder Influence in the Implementation of Construction Projects. International Journal of Project Management, 23, 321-328.
[17] IFC (2007) Stakeholder Engagement: A Good Practice Handbook for Companies Doing Business in Emerging Markets. IFC, Washington DC.
[18] Aaltonen, K., Kujala, J. and Oijala, T. (2008) Stakeholder Salience in Global Projects. International Journal of Project Management, 26, 509-516.
[19] Etzioni, A. (1964) Modern Organizations. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.
[20] Suchman, M.C. (1995) Managing Legitimacy: Strategic and Institutional Approaches. Academy of Management Review, 20, 571-610.
[21] Dowlatshahi, S. (1996) The Role of Logistics in Concurrent Engineering. International Journal of Production Economics, 44, 189-199.
[22] Chiu, M.C. and Kremer, G.E.O. (2011) Investigation of the Applicability of Design for X Tools during Design Concept Evolution: A Literature Review. International Journal of Product Development, 13, 132-167.
[23] Boothroyd, G., Dewhurst, P. and Knight, W. (1994) Product Design for Manufacture and Assembly. Illustration Edition, Marcel Dekker, New York.
[24] Macedo, I.S.M., Sousa-Gallagher, M.J., Oliveira, J.C. and Byrne, E.P. (2013) Quality by Design for Packaging of Granola Breakfast Product. Food Control, 29, 438-443.
[25] Dainty, A.R.J., Millett, S.J. and Briscoe, G.H. (2001) New Perspectives on Construction Supply Chain Integration. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 6, 163-173.
[26] Yin, R.K. (1989) Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Sage Publications, Newbury Park.
[27] Saaty, T.L. (1980) The Analytic Hierarchy Process: Planning, Priority Setting, Resource Allocation. McGraw-Hill, New York.
[28] Al-Subhi Al-Harbi, K.M. (2001) Application of the AHP in Project Management. International Journal of Project Management, 19, 19-27.
[29] Agle, B.R., Mitchell, R.K. and Sonnenfeld, J.A. (1999) Who Matters to CEOs? An Investigation of Stakeholder Attributes and Salience, Corporate Performance, and CEO Values. Academy of Management Journal, 42, 507-525.
[30] Cheng, E.W.L. and Li, H. (2003) Utility of Consistency Measure in the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management, 3, 231-247.
[31] Aapaoja, A., Kinnunen, T. and Haapasalo, H. (2014) Stakeholder Salience Assessment for Construction Project Initiation. International Journal of Performance Measurement, in Press.
[32] Majava, J., Nuottila, J., Haapasalo, H. and Law, K.M.Y. (2014) Customer Needs in Market-Driven Product Development: Product Management and R&D Standpoints. Technology and Investment, 5, 16-25.
[33] Kropsu-Vehkapera, H., Haapasalo, H., Jaaskelainen, O. and Phusavat, K. (2011) Product Configuration Management in ICT Companies: The Practitioners’ Perspective. Technology and Investment, 2, 273-285.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.